Windmill at Wijk - Jacob van Ruisdael 1670
The Mass/Inertia/Gravity/Weight Relationship.
Donald Louis Hamilton © All rights reserved
Weight created in an elevator (or in an accelerating rocket, etc.) is just as real as weight created on the surface of the Earth. It is created in both cases because a Secondary Force is being exerted on a body altering the body's primary acceleration.|
In forming his The General Theory of Relativity, Albert Einstein used his famous thought experiments to justify his postulate that Inertia (acceleration) and Gravity are equivalent. Although they are closely related they are not equivalent. Inertia is a requirement of space. Gravity is one of the primary forces of nature that fulfils this requirement. The force of gravity arises from the “mass” created by the Inertial requirement of Space.
One of the ideas that misled Einstein to his conclusion was that a body dropped in an accelerating elevator behaved in exactly the same manner as it would if dropped on the surface of Earth. Actually, the effects, in both cases, are similar but not exactly the same.
The truth is, Gravity causes bodies, dropped from various heights in the room resting on the ground, to fall at different rates of acceleration (due to their different distances to the center of gravity of the Earth) where as, all bodies in the accelerating elevator "fall" at the same rate. Also they do not "fall" parallel to each other under the influence of gravity as they do in an accelerating room.
Since in both cases, the motions of the falling bodies are not the same, it is good evidence that gravity and inertia are also, not equivalent. Einstein may have known about these discrepancies but choose to explain it as a local equivalence. (It works in large space but not small space).
Actually, in both cases (A)the accelerating elevator and (B)the room resting on the ground, weight, not gravity, is created! The weight created in the elevator (or in an accelerating rocket, etc.) is just as real as weight created on the surface of the Earth. It is created in both cases because a Secondary Force is being exerted on the body altering the body's primary acceleration, not because Gravity and Inertia are equivalent.
Weight is created simply because - 1. inertia requires a force be exerted to accelerate a body and - 2. the unique manner that a Secondary Force exerts its force on a body. It exerts its force in succession, one body pushes against the next body which pushes against the next etc. etc.. A molecule pushes against the next molecule, an atom pushes against the next atom (even though, at this level they may not actually touching each other), the floor of a rocket pushes against the feet of an astronaut which pushes against hiser (a new word meaning his and/or her) ankles which push against hiser legs etc. etc.
Secondary Force creates the unique effect of weight by exerting its force, by direct contact, in succession on a body. Gravity, a Primary Force, exerts its energy on all the atoms of a body simultaneously, not in succession. That is the big difference! A body under Gravity's influence alone is weightless. Only when a Secondary Force alters the body's acceleration, in some manner, is the effect of weight created.
In both cases of Einstein's thought experiment (Accelerating room and the room resting on the ground) a Secondary Force is creating the effect of weight. When a Primary Force such as Gravity is exerted on a body alone, (falling body) the body accelerates but the body is weightless! Gravity is exerting exactly the same amount of force on each basic particle simultaneously.
Gravity is not cancelled, the elevator is completely under the influence of gravitational force. It is being accelerated by Gravity alone and therefore no weight is created. Weight itself is not a force, it is the unique effect created - when a Secondary Force is exerted against a body and can be used as an accurate measurement to indicate the amount of Secondary Force that is being exerted. On Earth, weight is the measure of Secondary Force required to prevent a body from accelerating 32.2 ft./sec.2 toward the center of Earth.
Weight is created only when a Secondary Force is exerted against a body, thereby altering the body's original acceleration caused by a Primary Force. It could be Gravity or another Primary Force such as those that arise from the chemical reactions which produce the gases that propel a rocket or the electromagnetic force of the elevator's motors, it makes no difference. The important thing is that a Secondary Force must be exerted to STOP OR ALTER the body's acceleration for the effect of weight to be created. If a body is "resting" on the surface of the Earth, the surface prevents (stops) it from continuing its fall toward the center of the Earth.
Since it is a Secondary Force that creates the effect of weight in both cases (A and B), and Gravity is not a factor in the accelerating room, (and both cases do not even create exactly the same acceleration). Therefore, Einstein's postulate, "The Principle of Equivalence", has not been proven by this thought experiment. The idea that a light beam (case D) will be influenced by Gravity being exerted on it, also has not been proven. (The starlight beam that was supposedly deflected by the Sun’s gravity to add credibility to Einstein’s theory, was probably deflected by the Sun’s extended corona.)
Photons, (electromagnetic emission, EME), being pure energy have no mass or gravitational attraction when they are traveling in space. They always travel at the highest energy level that space allows, the speed of light. (I call it Inertial Infinity.) Matter by itself has no energy. It is only when a force is exerted on it, causing it to accelerate in space, (its space energy level rises) does it begin to acquire energy in the form of “mass” (M) and radiant energy (C2).
In the (faster) outer part of our galaxy, a proton has a “rest mass” of (X) units of inertial mass (UIMs, not lbs. or kgs., relative to absolute space.(see page 183).
In the central portion of our galaxy, (the slower area relative to absolute space), the “rest mass” of a proton would be less then (X). In a faster galaxy it would be greater (it depends on its space energy level). Since our galaxy is gradually accelerating (falling) toward the outlying area of the universe, the inertial mass of its matter is gradually increasing. Matter can never rise to the space energy level of Inertial Infinity. (Although near the boundary of the Universe its 'space energy level' is so high that protons are torn apart and exist as free quarks.)
Mass (or Inertial mass) is simply an indication of the energy level a body of matter, has attained in space. (Remember, the body does not move, relative to space itself.) The higher the space energy level, the more push is required by space to maintain the same acceleration of the body, in any direction. Therefore the body’s mass is also greater.
In the mass/energy relationship: E = MC2 -
M - is relativistic inertial mass of a body of matter
Actually, there is no such thing as Gravitational Mass,
other then when it is used to describe weight that is created
by Gravity and a Secondary Force.
In Newton's "Law of Gravitation", the two attracting masses are both Inertial Masses not Gravitational Masses.
Inertial Mass creates Gravitational Force. Both the primary forces; Gravity and EME, interact with matter in their own way but not with each other.
Nature's forces can be divided into just two basic types of force. A force is either a Primary Force or a Secondary Force. The Primary forces are the four fundamental forces of nature that arise from the interaction of the Inertial Requirement of Space.
The Secondary Forces are an extension of the energy of the Primary Forces. Each of these two types of force exert their energy in entirely different ways however, each creating its own unique effect.
The Primary Forces include: Electromagnetism, Gravity, the Strong and the Weak atomic forces.
The Primary Forces have the unique ability to exert their force across space from a distance.
These forces can impart the original acceleration to the body but their action alone,
cannot create the effect of weight.
The Secondary Forces include: Mechanical, Friction, Pressure, Obstruction, Buoyant, etc.. (the push/pull forces). These are our ordinary contact forces. These forces cannot create original motion in a body but can only use the energy of the Primary Forces, to carry on or alter the original path of the Primary Forces’ energy.
They have no energy of their own. Secondary Forces are an extension of the Primary Forces’ energy. Unlike the Primary Forces they cannot exert their force across space from a distance.
They can only exert their force from one body to the next by obstructing, pushing, bumping, rubbing or some similar force that actually has contact with the next body, in succession.
The Law of Inertia (Space) requires a force be exerted on a body in order to accelerate the body.
The Primary Forces and Secondary Forces are these forces. Both of these types of forces are equally important.
They are distinctly different in the manner they exert their force on a body and the resulting effect
they have one the body.
Gravity exerts it energy on each fundamental particle of a body, whereas the Secondary Forces exert their force on the body by direct contact, from one part to the next part, from one body to the next body, in succession, either transmitting or blocking the original energy of the Primary Force. Secondary Force creates pressure and stress on a body. It is this “action” that causes the effect of weight to manifest itself. We live our entire lives comfortably, with this pressure constantly being exerted on us.
It feels comforting and secure to have the firm feel of the Earth constantly exerting its Secondary "Obstructional" Force, preventing (stopping) our gravitational acceleration toward the center of the Earth. If we do not have this force being exerted on us, we immediately become weightless. In fact, the astronauts soon learned that if they remained in a state of weightlessness for a long period of time their bodies would began to weaken.
Our bodies have evolved under the influence of Gravity and Secondary Force (the surface of Earth). We need its constant pressure to remain strong and in good health. The fear of falling (becoming weightless) is deeply ingrained in our psyche. Just step off a high diving board or parachute out of an airplane sometime, its quite a sensation.
The Earth is constantly exerting a Secondary Obstructional” Force - changing our original Primary gravitational acceleration.
If the Earth's surface was removed even momentarily, our original gravitational acceleration would continue.
Bodies do not rest on the surface of the Earth. Actually everything on Earth has a constant
static force acting on it as a result of the Secondary Obstruction Force of the Earth's surface
opposing the Primary Force of Gravity. It is somewhat analogous to a boat with its motor running,
the force of the spinning propeller pushing it against the wall.
Although it is not moving it certainly cannot be considered at rest as compared to a boat, with its motor off, simply resting next to the wall. Although in both cases the boat is not moving, the conditions are very different. Therefore bodies lying on the surface of the Earth are not "at rest" but have a constant Primary Force and opposing Secondary Force being exerted against them. The amount of weight created is directly proportional to the amount of Secondary Force being exerted. This is a fundamental relationship of nature.
A Secondary Force can never by itself cause a body to accelerate, it needs the energy of a Primary Force. There must always be a Primary Force exerted first. The surface of the Earth can never exert a force on a body by itself.
When Gravity alone (a Primary Force) is exerted on a body, such as in a free fall, there is no Secondary Force being exerted, therefore no weight will be created. Although the body is weightless it still retains its Inertial Mass (its Inertial Requirement remains the same). Even though a body may be accelerating at a high rate, under the force of Gravity alone, no pressure or stress will be felt. The body will be weightless. The Earth, is always falling directly toward the sun but we feel no effects of this acceleration.
In the falling elevator of his thought experiment, Einstein speculated that no effect of Gravity was felt because there was no gravitational force present. The “falling” acceleration of the elevator cancelled the gravitational force. Actually, the elevator and its contents are totally under the influence of gravity alone. Conversely, he thought that the upward accelerating elevator in his experiment actually created Gravity where in reality it only created Weight. We must distinguish the difference between Gravity and Weight.
Acceleration by itself does not necessarily create the effect of weight.
Like "weight", "acceleration" also is only an effect caused by a force being exerted on a body. A Primary Force acting alone on a body (falling) can cause a body to accelerate with no "weight" being created.
Both weight and acceleration are simply “effects” created by the action of a force or forces being exerted on a body.
In a rocket, either falling or, accelerating under its own power, inertia (space) determines its rate of acceleration, for the amount of force being exerted. But it is only the amount of Secondary Force exerted that determines the amount of weight that will be created. With a rocket just hovering off the ground, one Primary Force (gravity) is being exerted against another Primary Force (electro-chemical forces of the combustion in the rocket's engine), canceling its gravitational acceleration. It is the structure and floor of the rocket that is the Secondary Force, creating the effect of weight on the astronaut inside.
The fact that all bodies fall at the same rate of acceleration has confused mankind for thousands of years. Aristotle thought that a heavy body should fall faster because the heavy body was exerting more downward force then a lighter body.
Galileo experimentally proved this was not the case. Newton explained it by saying that, Gravity and Inertia are exactly proportional. Einstein said they are equivalent. The truth is that both the heavy body and the light body have exactly the same amount of gravitational force being exerted on each one of their most “elemental particles”.
Does a heavy object exert more downward force then a light object?
Yes - the heavy object exerts more *total* downward force BUT - Gravity does not exert its force on the object as a whole, it exerts its force on each individual sub-atomic particle that makes up the object, simultaneously. (Gravity interacts with the inertial mass of each sub-atomic particles.)
If gravity interacts at the proton-neutron level they will all accelerate at the same rate
since they have nearly the same mass and are held tightly together by the strong force.
Although the electrons have much less mass they are under the influence of the heavier
protons within the atom.
However, if gravity interacts at the 'first generation' quark level they will all have exactly the same "mass-energy" and therefore all accelerate at exactly the same rate of acceleration.
It does not make any difference whether the object has millions of these particles or zillions particles, gravity exerts its force equally on each individual particle. That is why a person in free fall (with no atmosphere) feels nothing. Since gravity is exerting its force on each sub-atomic particle (protons and neutrons or possibly quarks) simultaneously in unison there are no stresses acting on the person. This is what fooled Einstein into thinking that there was no force acting on the falling person.
Since these particles all have nearly the same mass and are held together by the other primary forces, Gravity exerts an equal amount of force on each one of them, causing all of them to accelerate at the same rate, in unison, no matter which body they happen to be a part of. Gravity is not a special case of acceleration as Newton and Einstein thought.
Inertia simply requires a specific amount of force be exerted on a body of a specific mass in order to accelerate the body at a specific rate. It is the “elemental particles” that make up the object, not the whole object itself, that is influenced by Gravity.
Donald Louis Hamilton (author)
Reference book containing these original concepts: "The MIND of Mankind: Human
Imagination, the source of Mankind's tremendous power".
Published November 1996, ISBN 0-9649265-1-2, LCCN: 96-92329.
Chapter 18 - Weight: its relation with Inertia and Gravity
Ebook: Mind of Mankind
Is weight a force?
Gravity - Why bodies fall at the same rate.
""The Two Energies of Matter, Mass/Energy and Motion/Energy""
The Many motions of planet Earth
The Dilemma of the Michelson Morley Experiment
"Dark Energy - The Falling Galaxies"
(click on cover)
ISBN 09649265-1-2, Published 1996, 210 pages - Trade Paperback - Suna Press.
"I'm a geophysicist. I work in geodynamics and climate. My field of work is earth rotation and
gravity in relation with climate. I read some ideas of your book, and they are quite good.
Regards - Rodrigo, France
Ted Holmes says, "I just want to pass along my compliments on the depth of thought you have put into your work. I especially enjoyed the portion illustrating how a body does not move except in relation to other bodies, not in relation to space. It is the first time I have heard about this concept."
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Just finished your book ... great job! Do you have any other similar books
I was looking for information on creation/evolution
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This book should be included in the educational systems
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"Human Imagination is modern humans ability to visualize within their mind. To be creative!
The power to become aware of the wonders of the nature!
An eagle may have much keener eyes then ours but it cannot 'see' the things that we can!"
Donald L Hamilton
"Seeking reality with Imagination."