"The Two Energies of Matter"|
The Mass/Energy and Motion/Energy of Matter
Taking Another Look at the Michelson-Morley Experiment.
Donald Louis Hamilton, © 2013 All Rights Reserved
104 Ramona Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14220 716-826-2177
This paper is based on the research of Galileo's motion of bodies when he was working under house arrest in the 1600s, Newton's revolutionary ideas and relationships based on the results of Galileo's research, the research of Michelson and Morley's experiment on searching for an aether wind and finally Einstein's formula of the relationship of inertial mass of matter with energy.
Much of twentieth century physics was based primarily on the "null" result of the Michelson/Morley experiment of 1887 that was designed to discover an aether wind set up by the earth passing through the aether. They could find no aether wind regardless of which way they pointed their apparatus. No interference was observed. They were deeply disappointed and thought their experiment was a failure. They didn't realize what the "null" results of their experiment had proved and they rejected their findings.
Their experiment had proved that the earth did not move relative to absolute space or aether but they did not realize what it meant. For over one hundred years the truth was rejected by science and still is. Absolute space is a very special place in the order of things, it is where the "mass" of matter is created. The earth (and every thing else) is stationary relative to absolute space. There was no aether wind because there was no motion involved but there may still be a stationary aether.
Absolute Space/Laws of Nature are synomonous and are the most fundamental dimension of the universe. They brought the universe into existence. They rule over and govern everything in the universe. Nothing moves relative to this most fundamental dimension as the Michelson-Morley experiment discovered.
The hypothesis of this theory is that the Michelson, Morley's experiment was a success in that it proved that matter moves relative to other matter but it does not move relative to absolute space. They didn't understand that all matter possesses two distinct fundamental types of energy. Motion/energy and Mass/energy. They didn't realize what their experiment had discovered. Absolute space, a world where matter does not move, a dimension where "mass/energy" is created and its energy level is determined. In this dimension when a force is exerted on an object its "mass" is changes but no motion is involved, relative to absolute space. Inertial mass is simply the energy level of a body of matter relative to absolute space - it "space energy level".
(1.) Motion/energy. A body's Motion/energy dimension is relative to other matter. Motion/energy must be compared to something else, a car passing over the road, the earth orbiting the sun, an airplane passing through the air, etc. (vector quantities - momentum, velocity, speed, angular momentum, acceleration, etc.).
(2.) Mass/energy. The Mass/energy dimension is relative only to absolute space itself. There is no motion whatsoever involved, just the relativistic mass/energy of the body relative to absolute space. The mass/energy of matter in the universe does vary considerably. It is simply dark matter's space energy level relative to absolute space. This is the dark matter of the universe that scientists are searching for at the present time.
When a force is exerted on an object, both its motion/energy and mass/energy will be affected. The object will (1.) accelerate (motion/energy) depending on its size and mass (F=MA). (2.) Its inertial mass/energy will increase according to Einstein's Mass/energy relationship formula (E=MC2). No motion is involved in this case.
A body always has these two energies - an ordinary Motion/energy, relative to other matter, etc. and Mass/energy of matter, relative to absolute space alone. Matter's Motion/energy is always zero (0)relative to absolute space. A BODY HAS NO MOTION RELATIVE TO ABSOLUTE SPACE ITSELF.
Actually there would be no aether wind since the body emitting the light ray is always stationary relative to absolute space (aether). In fact all of Michelson's experiments throughout his lifetime failed to discover any motion of the Earth relative to aether (space). NO ONE HAS! They hadn't proved that there was no aether, just no aether wind. The results of these experiments sent the scientific world into a tizzy trying to find a logical explanation for this "null" result.
No Aether Wind - Michelson and Morley experiment had proved that there is no aether wind or movement of the earth through absolute space but they didn't understand the ramifications of this tremendous discovery. They didn't understand that all matter has two types of energy. Matter has Motion/energy relative to other matter (vector) BUT it also has relativistic Mass/energy (scalar) relative to absolute space (its space energy level). The higher a body's energy level relative to absolute space the more massive it will be.
The inertial mass of a body of matter is an indication of the energy level the body is at relative to absolute space. A certain body of matter, for example, could have a large or small inertial mass depending on its energy level relative to absolute space ("space energy level"). We can see from this example that inertial mass of a body is not a static condition, it does vary as conditions change. No matter how fast a body travels, relative to other bodies, it does not move relative to absolute space - (as proven by the "null" results of the Michelson/Morley experiment). The body's relativistic inertial mass changes as its energy level, relative to absolute space changes (space energy level).
This paper is based on the "null" results of the Michelson & Morley experiments that proved that matter is motionless relative to universal (absolute) space. There is no motion between matter and absolute space, no motion of any kind. Absolute Space (the absolute frame of reference of the entire universe) is the first dimension of the universe, it contains all the Laws of Nature. The "Laws of Nature" and "Absolute Space" are equivalent.
Fitzgerald and Lorentz came up with the adhoc idea that everything contracts just enough to compensate for the motion of the Earth relative to space. Even the “measuring sticks” contract, so that no motion can ever be detected. Einstein abandoned the idea of an aether and adapted these basic ideas to his Relativity theories to account for the constancy of speed of light.
The Laws of Nature are the first and fundamental dimension of the Universe. The Laws of Nature (Absolute Space) brought the universe (matter and energy) into existence. The universe can only exist within the bounds of the Laws of Nature (Absolute Space) where the "Laws" end the Universe ends. Absolute Space and the Laws of Nature are synomonous. The Laws of Nature govern everything within the universe and are invariant. They made the existence of the universe possible and gave the universe its personality. Conditions may change but the "Laws" never do. If the universe is expanding the Laws of Nature must be expanding too. If there was a Big Bang the Laws of Nature had to be in place before that event could happen.
The creation of the Laws of Nature brought Absolute Space into Existence. There are two different ways of thinking about the energy of a body (matter). When we consider the motion/energy of a body relative to other bodies or references - we must also always consider the inertial mass/energy of the body relative to Absolute Space. A body always has two energies - motion/energy (vector) and mass/energy (scalar).
The Laws of Nature and Absolute Space are synomonous.
The Laws of Nature (Absolute Space) brought the Universe into existence and govern every aspect of it. Nothing moves relative to Absolute Space.
Nothing moves relative to Absolute Space. The Michelson/Morley experiment and all the related subsequent experiments proved that!
ITS ABOUT TIME THAT SCIENCE ACCEPTS THIS EVIDENCE!
Without other matter to compare with or references there is nothing that can indicate that the Earth is moving relative to absolute space. There is no way to detect motion between a body and absolute space itself no matter how big or small it is. When considering a body relative to absolute space no other bodies are considered. The body must be considered alone and completely motionless relative to absolute space. This is why the speed of light in a vacuum is always the same.
When a body emits a ray of light (photons) the body is always considered motionless relative to absolute space. The photons will always travel away from the emitting body and be reflected back to the body at the same speed as Michelson and Morley found out. They could detect no aether wind or light interference on their apparatus no matter what direction it was turned.
The "null" results of the Michelson/Morley experiment was a total success. The mass/energy of a body of matter, relative to absolute space, is manifested as the body's relativistic inertial mass (a scalar quantity). When a force is exerted on a body it accelerates relative to other bodies (Newton's F=MA) and its mass/energy (Einstein's E=MC2) changes relative to absolute space. Their experiment indicated that matter is motionless relative to absolute space but not to other bodies. There was no need for the Fitzgerald/Lorentz contractions.
Although bodies do not move relative to absolute space itself, their mass/energy level (relativistic inertial mass) does change when enough force is exerted on a body to rise the body's energy to a higher level relative to absolute space. A tremendous amount of force (Newton's F=MA equation) is required to rise the body's inertial mass by a tiny amount as indicated when Einstein's E=MC2.
The Constancy of the Speed of Light. - When a particle emits a photon, the particle must be considered alone in space having no direction or motion - no other body is considered. In space the photon will always speed away from the particle at the speed of light. Only the emitting body and space itself are considered. It makes no difference how fast the emitting particle is traveling relative to other particles (vector velocity) - it is motionless ( 0 zero speed) relative to absolute space itself. (As indicated by the results of the Michelson/Morley experiments) No matter what direction (relative to other bodies) the photon is emitted the photon will always travel away from the emitting body at the speed of light. The photon by itself is pure energy, it has no mass at all. Einstein's E=MC2 represents matter's relativistic mass/energy, relative to absolute space.
There are no perfect clocks! Time doesn't change, only the time keeping of the atomic clocks change when the "relativistic mass/energy" of the clocks' change. Its mass/energy level rises as its energy level relative to absolute space rises. The atoms' relativistic mass/energy in the atomic clocks controls the frequency of the atom. If the relativistic mass/energy of an atom changes its frequency will change. Therefore the frequency of its atoms will also change causing the atomic clock's time keeping to change. This was discovered by the GPS time keepers. They discovered that the atomic clocks in the GPS satellite's atomic clock ran at a slightly different rate then the ground clocks. This slight change in the frequency of the GPS satellite's atomic clock causes it to get out of synchronization with the atomic clocks on the ground. Therefore the clocks must be constantly adjusted to keep the government's GPS system synchronized.
Time Dilation. - Time does not slow down as a rocket accelerates, only the atom's inertial mass/energy of clocks in the rocket change as the tremendous force of the rocket's engines cause their relativistic mass to rise relative to absolute space. This slight change in the relativistic mass of accelerating rocket's atomic clock cause the clock's atoms' mass (relativistic mass/energy)to change the atomic clocks' time keeping function slightly. It is the frequency of the atoms, relative to absolute space that determine the relativistic mass/energy level of the atoms. (There is no need for a "Higgs Boson").
Although matter moves about the universe relative to other matter, it does not move relative to absolute space. Absolute Space is a single entity from one end of the universe to the other. A body cannot pass from one part of space to another - absolute space itself is all one. Move relative to what?? Absolute Space without considering its energy or matter is far from empty however, it is absolutely packed with all the laws of nature. Every square centimeter of space within the Universe is filled with all the laws in existence, physics, chemistry and biology.
If astronauts were traveling in a rocket ship completely alone in space with its engines off they would be weightless. Even if they were accelerating under the force of gravity alone (toward another star or planet) they would still be weightless but their relativistic mass/energy would increase if gravity is a force. If gravity is not a force (such as Einstein claims in his "General Relativity Theory") then there should be no change in the rocket's relativistic inertial mass/energy since there would be no force acting on the rocket. This would be a good way to check Einstein's General Relativity theory.
"Space energy level" is the energy level of a body relative to absolute space only, with the speed of light being the ultimate high energy level. The "space energy level" of the body is manifested as its inertial mass. A body at a high "space energy level" (for example - equivalent to 3/4 the speed of light) would have more inertial mass then the same body at a lower "space energy level" (at 1/4 the speed of light). Conditions may vary in the universe but the laws of nature that guide and control matter and energy are universal and invariant - they never deviate!
Matter - the fundamental particles of nature - by themselves have no mass or energy. It is only when a force is exerted on them do they began to acquire mass/energy - they began to rise to a higher space energy level. Evidence of this is observed when a particle is accelerated in a particle accelerator (cyclotron). More and more force is required to maintain the same rate of acceleration as the particle's energy level increases. While the particle is accelerating relative to other matter (motion/energy) its relativistic mass/energy is also rising to a higher space energy level. Therefore the particle will require more and more force to maintain a constant acceleration as it rises to higher mass/energy levels.
A body that is at a very low "space energy level" has little inertial mass or kinetic energy. It would not require much force for the body to accelerate vectorally - relative to other bodies - or to rise to a higher "space energy level" - relative to absolute space. The same body traveling at a very high velocity (closer to the speed of light) and at a high "space energy level" would be very massive. Inertia would require a tremendous force be exerted for the body to continue to accelerate, relative to other bodies, or rise to a higher space energy level, relative to absolute space.
(F=MA) - Newton's 2nd Law of Motion states to the effect that when a force is exerted on an object it will accelerate relative to other objects. However Newton did not know that the body's relativistic mass/energy, the (M) in his equation also increases by an extremely tiny amount. Its mass/energy level relative to absolute space (space energy level) also rises by an extremely tiny amount as indicated by Einstein's (E=MC2). The force (F) in Newton's equation creates motion/energy (momentum) BUT the (M) also increases its mass/energy relative to absolute space in extremely tiny amounts.
It takes a tremendous amount of force to create a tiny amount mass as indicated by these two equations.
When Isaac Newton wrote his equation for the 2nd law of motion F = MA (force equals mass times acceleration) he knew nothing of inertia's requirement that an increasing amount of force is required to maintain the constant acceleration of a body as it rises to higher relativistic mass/energy levels or that a body does not move relative to absolute space itself. He therefore only considered the amount of force required accelerate a body relative to other bodies - its vector motion/energy. He never considered the variability of the relativistic mass/energy of the body relative to absolute space itself.
When a large force is exerted on a particle in a particle accelerator it accelerates to very high motion/energy levels. Both its kinetic momentum (motion/energy) relative to other matter rises and its inertial (relativistic mass/energy) relative to absolute space rises. The particle's acceleration (motion/energy) relative other bodies increases while simultaneously its mass/energy increases relative to absolute space.
Matter always has these two types of energy.
Newton's Inertia equation - F = MA shows the Motion/Energy of matter - a vector quanity of motion (A)relative to other matter.
Einstein's E = MC2 equation shows Mass/Energy of matter - a scalar quantity relative to absolute space. There is no motion (0 Zero) represented in this equation.
E = MC2 equation represents the tremendous amount of energy needed to increase the inertial mass of the particle by a very small amount. The equation (E=MC2) represents the ratio of energy (E) that is required to increase the particle's relativistic inertial mass (M) by a very small amount relative to absolute space (its space energy level).
Since the body has no (zero) motion relative to absolute space, (M) represents its inertial mass/energy relative to absolute space only.
Since C2 (the speed of light squared) is constant, the (M) relativistic inertial mass will depend upon its energy level relative to absolute space.
With Newton's inertia equation F = MA the motion (A) acceleration motion of the particle is relative to other bodies or references BUT NOT TO ABSOLUTE SPACE. When a force is exerted on a particle of a certain mass it will accelerate at a certain rate BUT as noted in Einstein's equation the relativistic mass/energy of the particle will also rise by an extemely tiny amount relative to absolute space. Therefore as the relativistic mass/energy of the particle increases (rises to a higher space energy level) the particle will require more force to maintain the same amount of acceleration of the now more massive particle. It can be seen with these two equations that as the M mass/energy increases relative to absolute space - more and more force will be required to maintain a constant acceleration (A) relative to other matter.
Therefore when we consider (vector) the motion/energy of matter - relative to other matter we must also consider the (scalar) inertial mass/energy (no motion!!)of the body - relative to absolute space. A body always has two energies - one vector and one scalar - a motion/energy relative to other bodies and an inertial mass/energy relative to absolute space. The motion energy is the body's kinetic or potential energy is relative to other bodies. (Potential energy is stored kinetic energy.) The body's relativistic inertial mass/energy is relative to absolute space - a non-motion scalar energy.
Newton's F=MA equation also shows the change in mass/energy of a body relative to absolute space as a force accelerates the body.
1. Motion/energy (F = MA) - The motion/energy of a body relative to other bodies - (a vector quantity). This would be the momentum or acceleration "motion/energy" of the body. This we perceive as the motion of the body relative to other bodies. The motion/energy of a body (momentum, velocity, speed) must always be compared to another reference (body or air, water, planet, moon, etc.).
2. Mass/energy (M=F/A) - is the energy of matter that manifests itself as the inertial mass of the energy - relative to absolute space itself. This energy is scalar (non-directional) mass/energy of the body. A rocket accelerating in space while it has direction relative to other bodies (kinetic) has no direction or motion relative to absolute space (scalar). If the rocket turns around with it rocket engine running its mass/energy will continue to rise. Absolute space is directionless the body will continue to gain relativistic mass/energy as long as a force is exerted. The only way the body can lose mass/energy is radiate its energy or transfer it to another body.
At earth's "space energy level" a body of matter contains a tremendous amount of this scalar mass/energy which we perceive as the inertial mass of the body. Einstein's E=MC2 represents the tremendous amount of energy a body of matter possesses relative to absolute space. This is the inertial mass/energy of the body. This inertial mass depends on its 'energy level' relative to absolute space only and is not dependant on its momentum relative to other bodies. Mass/energy creates gravity and determines gravity's
strength. The mass/energy level of a star relative to absolute space determines its gravitational power.
Take a bullet for example. The bullet at rest has no vector momentum/energy relative to other bodies around it but it does have inertial mass (a tremendous mass/energy - relative to absolute space). When we fire the bullet from a gun it gains tremendous kinetic energy F = MA as it accelerates out of the barrel AND at the same time the E = MC2 also increases the body's inertial mass M by a very tiny amount - relative to absolute space. (Its space energy level rises a very tiny amount.) When the bullet hits an object both the momentum and the inertial mass energies are transfered to the object and the bullet returns to its original energy level. The point is that the bullet, whether at rest or moving always has two energies - one relative to other bodies (vector) and one relative to absolute space (scalar).
The inertial mass of a body is not invariant, it depends on the "space energy level" of the body. As more and more force is exerted on a particle in a cyclotron its kinetic motion/energy relative to other matter (the cyclotron and the earth) increases, ALSO relative to absolute space its inertial mass increases. Relative to other bodies its acceleration increases greatly F = MA while its mass/energy relative to absolute space increases by a tiny amount M = E/C2.
In conclusion - when we consider the motion/energy (vector) of a body relative to other matter we must also - always consider the (scalar) inertial mass/energy of the body - relative to absolute space. A body always has two energies - one vector and one scalar - motion/energy and mass/energy.
Donald Louis Hamilton, is author of - "The MIND of Mankind" -
Human Imagination the source of Mankind's tremendous power.
"Searching for Reality with Imagination."