Absolute Space - Relative Motion Abstract - All Motion is Relative - to something else. To describe the motion of any body at least two points of reference must be taken into account (a body's motion compared to something else, the observer, the background, etc.). For example; an automobile's motion is compared to the surface over which it is traveling, this goes for the Earth too. The Earth's motions compared to the sun or moon or stars, etc.are all different. You cannot describe the motion of the Earth without comparing it to something else. Its motion will be different in each case, with the reference to what it is being compared to. Universal space is a special case. A body does not travel through space. Relative to absolute space all bodies are completely motionless. This is the conclusion I reach from Michelson's many experiments in his quest to find aether. His experiments and all other experiments since have failed to detect any motion of the Earth relative to absolute space. Absolute space is a single indivisible entity - a body cannot move relative to absolute space - it is all one - there is nothing to compare it with. The Earth is stationary relative to absolute space but has many different vector motions relative to other bodies, (relative to the moon, sun, stars, etc.). This should soon be verified when the results of "Gravity Probe B" are fully analyzed. Absolute Space (space when matter and energy are not considered) is far from empty, however - it contains all the natural phenomena the "Laws of Nature" (the physical laws of the universe) that govern the actions of matter and energy. These laws give the universe its personality. Although a body may be accelerating or moving vectorially relative to other bodies - it is motionless relative to absolute space its 'energy level' increases as force is exerted on it. This is perceived as an increase in the 'inertial mass' of the body. The body's inertial mass is an indication of its scalar energy relative to absolute space. The rest mass of a body is not an invariant attribute - it is simply an indication of energy level of the body relative to absolute space. Its relativistic mass/energy level relative to absolute space. One of the most fundamental and interesting features of nature is the "Inertia" phenomenon of a body. Galileo discovered it and Newton explained it with his famous mathematical relationship (F=MA). It states that a force must be exerted on a body to accelerate the body - (to change its motion in any way). Newton thought that the force exerted was proportional to the acceleration achieved. This was not quite true however - it was later discovered that as the body reached higher energy levels more and more force was required to maintain the same rate of acceleration. The body had not acquired more matter, only force had been exerted on the body and as a result it simply has risen to a higher "Space Energy Level’. The body’s relativistic inertial mass (M) became greater! Einstein's famous equation (E=MC2) explained this phenomenon by stating - that the body’s mass and energy are equivalent. This equation represents the scalar inertial mass/energy of the body relative to absolute space - it has no direction or momentum - it simply indicates the body’s ‘energy level’ relative to absolute space itself. - Whereas Newton’s (A=F/M) represents the vector acceleration of the body relative to other bodies. Momentum=Mass x Velocity is also a vector motion - relative to other bodies. Potential energy is also relative to the position of other bodies. Einstein may not have realized that his equation represented the 'energy level' of a body relative to absolute space. Newton's disciple, Sam Clarke was partially on the right track when he said - Absolute space is one and essentially indivisible. George Berkeley's argument against Newton's pail experiment - to prove the existence of absolute space - was that the pail had many motion's in space such as the Earth's rotation, annual revolution, etc. He didn't realize that these were all vector/momentum motions relative to other bodies - not to absolute space itself. Relative to absolute space the pail was not moving. Space itself has no coordinates or dimensions - it has no geometry - a body is always completely motionless relative to space itself as indicated by the results of the Michelson & Morley experiment. The body however, does possess tremendous scalar energy (electromagnetic (radiation) energy, gravitational energy, nuclear energy). These energies are perceived as the body's inherent inertial mass at that 'space energy level'. The strength of this energy determines its "space energy level" . The only way bodies can move about the universe are in relation to other bodies or reference points. In relation to absolute space a body has only a scalar ‘space energy level’ which is perceived as Newton’s ‘inertial mass’. The rest mass of a body varies with its ‘space energy level’. The ‘rest mass’ of a proton on Earth will be different then on a planet in a galaxy that is at a different ‘space energy level’. The ‘space energy level’ of a body may or may not not move to other levels smoothly but in quantum jumps - just as the electron moves to other energy levels in quantum jumps. A body of matter has no intrinsic inertial mass - it may have a near zero mass/energy or an very great mass/energy - it just depends on the body’s level of energy relative to space. The total mass/energy (M) of the body is not just the body’s electromagnetic energy but also includes its gravitational energy and its strong and weak energies also. A body at a very low mass/energy has little or no gravitational power. Its strong and weak powers also are proportional to its inertial mass. Atoms of uranium would not be radioactive if they were in an environment such as a galaxy that is at a higher ‘space energy level’ then our galaxy - whereas the metal lead may be radioactive in an environment that is at a lower ‘space energy level’. This could be proven experimentally by rising the energy level of a lump of uranium in a centrifuge to see if its rate of radioactivity was reduced. There is no way however to reduce the ‘space energy level’ of lead to see if it would become radioactive. Here are some mathematical relationships related to this theory: A body's energy level relative to space = its inertial mass A body's energy level relative to other bodies = its momentum (mass x velocity). A body's momentum relative to absolute space = 0 A body's inertial mass relative to absolute space = its 'space energy level'. "Space energy level" is the energy level of a body relative to absolute space - with the lowest energy level possible being a body of matter with no mass while the highest energy level being a body that has reached an infinitely high mass. Both these cases are probably not attainable in reality. It would be synonymous with a body vectorially reaching the speed of light - the highest momentum energy level relative to other bodies. A body at a high "space energy level" (for example - 1/4 the speed of light) would be perceived as having more inertial mass then the same body at a lower "space energy level" (at 1/8 the speed of light). For example the rest mass of a proton in a galaxy at 1/8 SOL would be less then a proton in a galaxy whose space energy level was at a 1/4 the SOL. A body that is at a very low energy level - relative to absolute space - has very little inertial mass/energy. Inertia would not require as much force for the body to accelerate vectorially - relative to other bodies - or to rise to a higher "space energy level" - relative to space itself. The same body at a very high "space energy level" (nearer the speed of light) has very strong energy/forces. Its inertial mass would be very high. Inertia would require a tremendous force be exerted for the body to accelerate vectorially relative to other bodies or rise to a higher space energy level (relative to space). There are two different ways of thinking about the energy of matter. Matter - the fundamental particles of nature - by themselves they have no mass or energy. It is only when a force is exerted on them do they began to acquire mass/energy - they began to rise to a higher 'space energy level'. Evidence of this is observed when a body is accelerated in a cyclotron - as its velocity increases, it requires more and more force to maintain the same rate of increase in velocity. The body's relativistic inertial mass is rising to a higher 'space energy level' - this is perceived as an increase in the body's relativistic inertial mass/energy (a scalar effect). While a body cannot accelerate past the speed of light no matter how much force is exerted on it, its relativistic inertial mass (its space energy level relative to absolute space) continues to increase. 1. Momentum/energy - Bodies can zip around space relative to other bodies. The changing positions of a body relative to other bodies - (a vector velocity) would be the kinetic momentum/energy of the body. This we perceive as the momentum of the body relative to other bodies. (A body can also possess a potential energy in relation to its position with other bodies.) 2. Relativistic Inertial mass/energy - the body's space energy level relative to absolute space. This is the mass/energy of a body no matter what energy level it is relative to absolute space. It is the scalar (nondirectional) mass/energy of the body. At Earth's "space energy level" a body of matter contains a tremendous amount of this relativistic mass/energy which we perceive as the inertial mass of the body. 3. Rest mass of a proton is invariant at a certain "space energy level", if it moves to another energy levelits rest mass will change. Einstein's E=MC2 represents the tremendous amount of energy a body of matter possesses relative ONLY to space. This energy represents the four energy/forces - not just radiation energy of the body. This inertial mass/energy depends on its 'space energy level' - NOT relative to the motion of other bodies. Take a bullet for example. The bullet at rest has no vector momentum/energy relative to other bodies around it but it does have inertial mass (a tremendous mass/energy - relative to space). When we fire the bullet from a gun it gains tremendous kinetic energy as it accelerates out of the barrel, a vector velocity (momentum energy relative to other bodies). It also gains a very tiny additional amount of inertial mass - relative to space itself (a scalar energy). Its "space energy level" rises a very tiny amount. When the bullet hits an object both the vector momentum and the inertial mass energies are transfered to the object and the bullet returns to its original energies. The point is that the bullet, whether at rest or moving always has two energies - one relative to other bodies (vector) and one relative to space (scalar). The inertial mass of a body is not invariant, it depends on the 'space energy level' of the body. As more and more force is exerted on a particle in a cyclotron it rises to an ever higher energy level - relative to space (its inertial mass increases). Relative to other bodies (such as the stationary cyclotron) its vector velocity momentum energy motion increases greatly. The Constancy of the Speed of Light. This concept can also be applied to when a particle emits a photon. The emitting particle must be considered alone in space (scalar - having no direction or motion) - no other body is considered. The photon will always speed away from the particle at the speed of light. Inertial Infinity - the maximum speed that matter or energy can travel in the universe. Only the emitting body and space itself is considered. It makes no difference how fast the emitting particle is traveling relative to other particles (vector velocity) - it is motionless relative to absolute space itself. No matter what direction (relative to other bodies) the photon is emitted, the photon will always travel away from the emitting body at the speed of light. If the photon bounces back off a mirror it will return to the emitting particle at exactly the same speed. The vector momentum of a body is limited to the speed of light whereas the inertial mass is "theoretically infinite". A body's vector velocity cannot exceed the speed of light but its inertial mass/energy can rise indefinitely provided enough force could be exerted on it, although in reality this may be unattainable. In conclusion - when we consider the momentum energy (vector velocity) of a body we must also - always consider the scalar inertial mass energy of the body - (its energy relative to space). A body always has two energies - one vector and one scalar - "momentum" and "inertial mass". Space itself has no direction, or geometry (Euclidean or Riemmanian). When you speak of coordinates or manifolds you are not speaking of absolute space you are speaking of p oints or lines within space - not space itself. Space does not curve because a body does not move relative to space. There is no Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction nor space-time relative to space itself. The inertial mass of a body depends only on the 'space energy level' of the body - no vector motion is considered. When a body emits a photon only the energy level of the body relative to absolute space is considered - the vector motion of the body, relative to other bodies, is not considered. Donald Louis Hamilton. Ref: Chapter 16 - "Mind of Mankind - Human Imagination, the source of Mankind's tremendous power." (Click on cover) Imagination - The Power that makes us Human! Plus - New concepts in Cosmology, Physics, and Astronomy, etc.. "Searching for Reality with Imagination."