© Donald Louis Hamilton, All rights reserved.
The "Laws of Nature" create "Absolute Space" and determine the size of the universe - nothing can exist beyond these laws. They guide everything within the universe - they create the personality of the universe - without these laws there could be no universe.
Relative Motion: All motion must be relative to something else. To perceive motion of a body it must be compared with another frame of reference or body. When its motion is being compared to absolute space its motion is always zero. That is why Michelson could find no evidence of motion of the Earth through space.
Although an accelerating body's motion is changing relative to other bodies, it is motionless relative to space. It is impossible to move from one part of space to another part, it is all one. The body's energy level relative to space itself ("space energy level") does however, increase as a force is exerted on it. This is perceived as an increase in the inertial mass of the body. In a cyclotron (particle accelerator) a proton becomes more massive as it accelerates. Its relativistic energy level relative to absolute space itself (space energy level) increases. When a force is exerted on an accelerating body it always has two changes in its energy level, one relative to other bodies (vector) or reference frames (momentum) and one relative to space (inertial mass), the absolute reference (scalar) frame.
It was discovered by Dr. Vera C. Rubin that a galaxy rotates like a wheel with the outer portion traveling much faster then the center part of the wheel. The velocity of the stars, in the outlying portions of a spiral galaxy are greater then the stars near the center. Therefore the outer stars' relativistic inertial mass, (space energy level)is higher and gravitational power (G constant) will also be stronger.
This is why stars are created in these outlying regions of the rotating spiral galaxies. The gravity of matter is strong enough, due to its higher "space energy level"(relativistic inertial mass), for fusion reactions to take place and the proto-stars to form and ignite into new born stars. This is also the reason there is no need for the mysterious dark matter to hold the galaxies together. Gravity is strong enough due to the higher "space energy level" (relativistic inertial mass) to do the job itself.
Absolute Space: Isaac Newton thought that absolute space was a distinguished frame of reference that could show bodies to be truly moving or truly at rest. - He was half right with his motion equation F=MA, BUT he didn't know that a body's relativistic mass/energy also rises as the force is exerted on it but no motion is involved. A body always has two forms of energy: 1. Mass/energy and 2. motion/energy. He did not realize that nothing moves relative to space itself. Space is the absolute frame of reference. A body has no motion relative to space but it does have a mass/energy level relative to space. Since a body's motion relative to space is always zero when comparing a body's energy with space, the body indicates it energy, relative to space, by variation in its inertial mass or its "space energy level".
Inertial Mass or Mass: In this paper "inertial mass" is the (M) in Newton's F=MA or M=F/A "units of inertial mass" or UIMs (not kgs which indicates a measure of weight). It is also the (M) in Einstein's E=MC2
Universal (Absolute) Space: Is the total area of the universe. It is the absolute frame of reference. Space is not just an empty void between bodies, it is filled with all the "laws of nature" that make the universe work. It is these "laws of nature" that create absolute space and control everything within it. The Laws of Nature give the universe its personality. What would the universe be without interia or gravity, etc.?? Space has no coordinates or dimensions - it has no geometry or direction.
A body is always completely motionless relative to absolute space itself as proved by the results of the Michelson & Morley experiment. While a body is always at motionless relative to absolute space, it does possess tremendous inertial mass (energy/forces, relative to space: electromagnetic energy, gravitational energy, strong and weak nuclear forces). These are the fundamental forces of nature that control and guide all matter and energy within space. The body's relativistic inertial mass depends on its energy level relative to space itself, ("space energy level").
"Space energy level" is the energy level of a body relative to absolute space itself (relativistic inertial mass) with the inertial infinity being the ultimate highest energy level. The "rest" mass of the proton is variable, and depends on its (relativistic inertial mass) energy level relative to absolute space. Einstein came up with this idea and then preferred to use "rest" mass in his theories. It could be lower or higher relative to a proton's rest mass on Earth. At the "space energy level" of our solar system, a proton's rest mass is X UIMs (units of inertial mass M=F/A). In another planetary system in a slower part of the galaxy where the space energy level is only 1/2 that of our solar system its proton's inertial mass would only be 1/2(X) UIMs therefore its gravity would also be weaker in proportion to the weaker proton's inertial mass.
The inertial mass of a proton depends on its energy level, relative to absolute space, ("space energy level") "Inertial Infinity" is the highest energy level, relative to space, that a body can attain. A proton at a high "space energy level" (for example - 1/4 the speed of light) would be perceived as having more inertial mass then the same proton that is at a lower "space energy level" (at 1/8 the speed of light). For example the rest mass of a proton in a galaxy at 1/8 SOL would be less then a proton in a galaxy whose space energy level was at a 1/4 the SOL.
"Relativistic Inertial Mass" and "Space Energy Level" are synomynous and indicate the energy level of a body relative to Absolute Space.
Variable Gravity: The strength of gravity varys - it is proportional to inertial mass (space energy level). A body that is at a very low energy level - relative to absolute space (its has very little inertial relativistic inertial mass/energy (gravitational attraction, EME, strong and weak energy/forces). Inertia would not require as much force for the body to accelerate vectorally - relative to other bodies - or to rise to a higher "space energy level" - relative to space itself. Therefore its gravitational attraction would be weak. The same body at a higher "space energy level" (nearer the speed of light) has stronger gravitational force. Its inertial mass would be higher. Inertia would require more force be exerted for the body to accelerate vectorally relative to other bodies or rise to a higher space energy level (relative to space). Its gravitational power would be stronger because its inertial mass is greater. Its gravitational constant would be different. Newton's gravitational constant is not so constant! .
Matter - the fundamental particles of nature - by themselves have little mass or energy. It is only when a force is exerted on them do they began to become more massive - they began to rise to a higher space energy level. The higher the space energy level, the more massive the particles become. Therefore, since the gravitational attraction of a body depends on its mass (according to Newton) the body's gravitational attraction power will also began to rise. Evidence of this is observed when a particle is accelerated in a cyclotron. As the particles's velocity increases it requires more and more force to maintain the same rate of acceleration. The particle is rising to a higher energy level relative to space (space energy level). This is perceived as an increase in the particles's inertial mass/energy.
Cosmic Rays: Scientists are puzzled by the tremendous high energy cosmic rays possess. How can a single atomic nucleus gain such extreme energies? The simple answer is: it is emitted from a galaxy that is at a much higher "space energy level". It is traveling closer to the speed of light then our galaxy. Protons in these galaxies have a "rest" mass that is greater then the protons in our galaxy (their Gravity constant would also be higher then ours.) These are the galaxies that show much greater red shifts or a quasar galaxy. They may come from galaxies beyond our visible universe.
According to Newton's Gravity formula, A body's inertial mass is proportional to the body's gravitational power. Inertial mass of a body is determined by its energy level relative to universal space (space energy level). Therefore, the body's gravitational attraction power is proportional to its energy level relative to space (its inertial mass). Therefore gravity is variable and depends on the body's "space energy level". The energy level of the body relative to space.
Kenetic energy: - Bodies can move through space,(vector motion) relative to other bodies (frames of reference). The changing positions of an accelerating body relative to other bodies - would be the kinetic energy (momentum) of the body. This we perceive as the momentum of the body relative to other bodies. (A body can also possess a potential energy in relation to its position with other bodies, or energy stored within the body (a spring), or its thermal energy.)
Mass/energy: - the body's energy level relative to space itself, (the absolute frame of reference).
The "rest" inertial mass of a proton is not invariant, it varys in direct proportion to the 'space energy level' it is at. Einstein's E=MC2 represents the tremendous amount of energy a body of matter possesses relative to space - the "absolute frame of reference". This energy represents the four primary forces - not just radiation energy of the body. This inertial mass depends on its energy level relative to space itself, (space energy level) - NOT to other bodies.
Take a bullet for example. The bullet at rest has no vector momentum/energy relative to other bodies around it but it does have inertial mass, relative to space. When we fire the bullet from a gun it gains tremendous kinetic energy as it accelerates out of the barrel, it also takes on a very tiny additional inertial mass - relative to space itself (a scalar energy). Its space energy level rises a very tiny amount. When the bullet hits an object both the vector momentum and the inertial mass energies are transferred to the object and the bullet returns to its original energies. The point is that the bullet, whether at rest or moving always has two energies - one relative to other bodies (vector) and one relative to space (scalar).
The inertial mass of a body is not invariant, it depends on the 'space energy level' of the body. As more and more force is exerted on a particle in a cyclotron it rises to an ever higher energy level - relative to space (its inertial mass increases). Relative to other bodies (such as the stationary cyclotron) its vector velocity momentum energy motion increases greatly.
The Constancy of the Speed of Light.
This concept can also be applied to when a particle emits a photon. The particle must be considered alone in space (scalar - having no direction or motion) - no other body is considered. The photon will always speed away from the emitting particle at the speed of light - the maximum energy level that a body can achieve in the universe. The photon is pure energy, it has no inertial mass so it will always travel at the speed of light in space (Inertial Infinity).
When a partcle emits a ray of light, only the emitting body and space itself is considered. It makes no difference how fast the emitting particle is traveling relative to other particles - it is motionless relative to space itself (although it "space energy level" can vary and this may effect the emitting particle's ability to emit a photon). No matter what direction (relative to other bodies) the photon is emitted, the photon will always travel away from the emitting body, in space, at the speed of light (inertial infinity).
Inertial infinity: the speed of light, is the maximum energy level that space will allow. Photons always travel at this level, in space. Since our planet is it at a certain space energy level (SEL) our measure of the speed of light will be different from a planet in another galaxy that is at a higher or lower space energy level.
It would be interesting to find out what space energy level our solar system is actually at. We certainly have very strong inertial mass and gravitational force. There is an immense amount of energy in our nuclear bombs. Matter in our solar system's area of the galaxy is at a space energy level that made it possible for the solar system to form. Are we at 1/4 or 1/2 inertial infinity or what "space energy level" are we actually at? Is our energy level increasing or falling or in a stable state? It may be possible to determine this if we measure any change in the speed of light over a long period of time.
Absolute Space: itself has no direction, or geometry (Euclidean or Riemmanian). When you speak of coordinates or manifolds you are not speaking of space itself you are speaking of points or lines within space - not absolute space itself. Space does not curve because a body does not move relative to space. There is no Fitzgeral-Lorentz contraction nor space-time relative to space itself. The inertial mass of a body depends on its "space energy level". When a body emits a photon only the body and its space energy level are considered - the motion of the body is not considered..
Isaac Newton's first law of motion, the Law of Inertia states - "A body at rest tends to remain at rest and a body in motion tends to continue in motion in a straight line except in so far as it is acted upon by a disturbing force".
(In motion relative to what?). Relative to other bodies? Yes! Relative to space itself? No! A body does not move relative to space itself, as the Michelson-Morley experiment has indicated.
Inertia: Where does "inertia" come from?? Inertia is a characteristic of absolute space that requires a force be exerted on a body to change its space energy level, either vectorally (relative to other bodies or reference frames) or scalar (relative to space itself).
Inertia is a fundamental law of nature that requires a force be exerted on a body to accelerate the body, relative to other bodies and since the body does not accelerate relative to space itself (nothing moves relative to space) this "energy" manifests itself as an increase in the inertial mass of the body. A scalar (nondirectional) mass/energy of the body. At Earth's "space energy level" a body of matter contains a tremendous amount of this scalar mass/energy which we perceive as the inertial "rest" mass of the body.
The Inertial Requirement of a body is the amount of force that space requires be exerted, on the body, in order to accelerate that body at a certain rate of acceleration and raise its inertial mass by a certain amount. Remember, a body always has two forms of energy - kenetic, relative to other bodies (frames of reference) and inertial mass, relative to space (the absolute frame of reference).
Inertia is not a reactive force. Inertia is a requirement of absolute space. It is absolute (universal) space itself that, requires a force be exerted on a body, for it to accelerate to either a higher or lower space energy level. This is the "Inertial Requirement of Space". A body does not resist a change in its motion nor does Inertia simultaneously release its hold on a body as a force is exerted.
Space simply requires a force be exerted on a body for it to accelerate, relative to other bodies, or to change to another energy level, relative to space (space energy level), otherwise its motion, relative to other frames of reference, and inertial mass, relative to space, will remain the same.
Since an accelerating body does not move relative to absolute space the only thing it can do, when a force is exerted on it, is to RISE TO A HIGHER "SPACE ENERGY LEVEL" such as observed in a cyclotron (particle accelerator). Since Newton's gravity depends on inertial mass, as a body's inertial mass increases (space energy level rises), its gravitational attraction will also increase. This means that gravitational attraction between bodies can vary depending on the space energy level they are at. Gravity becomes stronger as its inertial mass increases. The gravitational constant (G) is not so constant after all!
Ref: Cyclotron mass - "As a particle moves through an accelerator and picks up energy, some of that energy is converted to mass. The more force that is exerted on the particle, the more massive it becomes. At low velocities, this mass increase is modest. A particle moving at one-fifth the speed of light, for example, gains only two percent over its original "rest" mass. But at velocities that are easily attained in large cyclotrons, the mass increase becomes very large."
Therefore, since inertial mass of the particles is the governing factor in Newton's Law of Gravitation, as the inertial mass increases, the gravitational power of the particles also increase.
In Newton's equation for inertial mass (F=MA), (M) is the body's inertial mass, the body's energy level, relative to absolute space. The body (M) would require X amount of (F)force to (A)accelerate the body at a certain rate, relative to other bodies. An extremely small amount of this force would be converted to the body's inertial mass, (E=MC2) relative to absolute space. This newly acquired inertial mass would also create a slightly stronger gravitational attraction, according to Newton's law of gravity.
Eintein's formula: E = MC2 (E) represents the energy level of a body relative to space (space energy level). (M) represents the inertial mass of the body. (C) represents inertial infinity (the speed of light).
We know from experience that as a body accelerates toward the speed of light, more and more force must be exerted on the body in order to maintain the same rate of acceleration. For example, as a particle accelerates toward the speed of light in a cyclotron, it requires more and more force be exerted, in order to maintain its acceleration. We perceive this property to be the body's inertial mass. More force is required, therefore its inertial mass becomes greater. Absolutely nothing is added to the body as its space energy level rises, space simply requires more force be exerted to maintain the same acceleration, therefore its inertial mass is perceived to be greater.
The mass of a body of matter is an indication of the energy level the body is at, relative to space. A certain body of matter, for example, could have a large or small inertial mass depending on its energy level relative to space ("space energy level").
A body's "Space Energy Level", determines the mass of the body. An astronaut traveling in a rocket at 1/2 the speed of light would have a much larger inertial mass then the same astronaut traveling in a rocket traveling at 1/4 the speed of light. The "inertial requirement of space" would require a greater force be exerted to accelerate the astronaut in any direction. His inertial mass would be greater even though the amount of matter in his body is exactly the same. The astronaut's body simply rose to a higher energy level in space.
We can see from this example that inertial mass of a body is not a static condition, it does vary as conditions change. No matter how fast a body travels, relative to other bodies, it does not move relative to space, only its inertial mass changes.
Scientists sometime confuse this change of inertial mass with time dilation. "By synchronizing two atomic clocks, then flying one for extended amounts of time in an airplane and comparing its time reading with the stationary clock, scientists have discovered a dilation of a few millionths of a second for the airborne clock."
They thought they had witnessed time dilation. Actually what had happened was that the acceleration of the plane throughout the flight had raised the inertial mass of the clock in the airplane very slightly causing the discrepency in the synchronization of the clocks. They had in effect, witnessed an experiment using the absolute frame reference of the airborne clock's, space energy level. The acceleration of the airplane had effected its inertial mass, relative to absolute space.
Stronger gravity makes it possible for new stars to form. This is why stars are created in the outlying portions of rotating spiral galaxies where the velocity is greater and therefore the "space energy level" is higher (inertial mass is greater) and therefore the gravitational attraction is greater. The gravity of the protostars becomes strong enough to produce the heat for fusion to take place and the proto stars to ignite into new born stars. Stars are not created in eliptical galaxies, they were probably created when the galaxy was still a spiral galaxy.
Since the gravity is actually stronger in the outlying area of spiral galaxies, due to the higher space energy level in their outlying areas there is no need for "dark matter" to hold them together.
According to Newton's, Law of Gravitation, the inertial mass (M) of a body determines the amount of gravitational force the body will possess.
Gravity= (G)(constant)X (M1)X (M2) divided by (D2) (distance squared).
Therefore, Inertial Requirement (Newton's Law of Inertia) F=(M)A is responsible for creating and determining the strength of gravitational force a body will possess.
The Law of Inertia is the most fundamental law of nature. It is the law of nature that controls matter and energy within the universe. It determines a body's inertial mass and the amount of gravitational attraction the body will possess.
We have just seen that a body's inertial mass and gravitational power increase as it rises to a higher "Space Energy Level", (its Relativistic Inertial Mass). Conversely, a body with a very low space energy level will have a very small Inertial Requirement (very little Relativistic Inertial Mass) and therefore very little Gravitational attraction.
This is the reason stars form only in spiral galaxies. Intergalactic star dust does not have enough mass (be at a high enough space energy level) and therefore, it lacks the gravitational power to form a star. It is only when a spiral galaxy passes by, sweeping up and accelerating this intergalactic matter, will its inertial mass (space energy level rise enough) and therefore gravitational attraction become strong enough to form a proto-star and compress it sufficiently to began a nuclear fusion reaction.
It is only when the body begins to accelerate to a higher space energy level will its relativistic inertial mass increase and therefore its gravity become stronger. (Gravitational mass is used to describe the weight of a body on Earth due to gravitational attraction.)
Donald L. Hamilton, author of - "The MIND of Mankind" Published November 1996
14. The Finite Universe
15. Inertia, A Requirement of Space.
16. The Michelson-Morley Experiment
17. The Falling Galaxies
18. Weight, Its Relation with Inertia and Gravity
(Click on Cover)
Part 2. New concepts in Cosmology, Physics, and Astronomy.
Absolute Space - Space Energy Level of Matter.