Donald L. Hamilton, © 2007 - 2013
Inertial Mass - "When a force is exerted on a proton in a particle accelerator the particle accelerates to a higher velocity relative to other matter. (This is a vector value, it has motion and direction as represented in Newton's F=MA relationship). At the same time the force also elevates the particle to a higher mass/energy level relative to space itself. This is a scalar energy, relative to space itself, it has no direction nor motion. A body always has these two forms of energy (motion/energy and mass/energy). This mass/energy is another dimension of the universe that was discovered by Michelson-Morley's experiment in 1887 but was ignored as too improbable by science. Nothing moves relative to absolute space - this is the mass/energy dimension of the universe!
Instead the scientists went along with Einstein's, Fitzgerald's ideas which have become the standard model of 20th century of physics and cosmology. Newton did not realize the importance of the (M) inertial mass in his F=MA equation which was also rising by an extremely minute amount. Newton did not know about this extremely important part of his equation that did not become apparent until it was discovered with the advent of the cyclotron experiments.
This higher energy level relative to space (space energy level) is perceived as an increase in the (inertial) mass of the particle. The more force that is exerted on the particle, the more massive it becomes. At low velocities, this mass increase is very minute BUT since extremely tiny mass/energy increase affects the timing of the atomic clock's in the GPS statellites it has become very important. A small increase it the mass/energy of the satellite's clocks affects their time keeping and they become out of sync. with the GPS ground clocks and so must be constantly adjusted back into sync.
A particle moving at one-fifth the speed of light, for example, gains only two percent over its original "rest" mass. But at higher velocities that are easily attained in large cyclotrons, the inertial mass increase can become very large." This holds true whether the particles are whirling around in a cyclotron or traveling as part of a star in a spiral galaxy.
Since the velocity of stars are much higher in the outer reaches of the spiral arms of a galaxy (according to the findings of astronomer Dr. Vera C. Rubin) their protons will be at a higher space energy level and their inertial mass will therefore be greater. This phenomena not only effects the inertial mass of the proton but it also effects the strength of the proton's gravitational force according to Issac Newton's Law of Gravitation which depends on the attraction between the inertial mass of the attracting bodies. As the inertial mass of the proton (nucleon) increases, the gravitational force of the nucleons will also increase.
Inertial mass (M) is a prime factor in Newton's Law of Gravitation:
Gravity= (G)(constant) X (M1) X (M2) divided by (D2) (distance squared).
In Newton's equation for inertial mass (F=MA), (M) is the body's inertial mass, (the body's energy level, relative to absolute space). A body (M) would require a certain amount of (F)force to (A) accelerate the body at a certain rate. An extremely small amount of this force would become the body's inertial mass, as indicated in Einstein's equation (E=MC2) relative to absolute space. This newly acquired inertial mass would also create a slightly stronger gravitational attraction, according to Newton's law of gravity.
Eintein's formula: E = MC2 (E) represents the energy level of a body relative to space (space energy level). (M) represents the inertial mass of the body. (C) represents inertial infinity (the speed of light). We know from experience that as a body accelerates toward the speed of light, more and more force must be exerted on the body in order to maintain the same rate of acceleration. This is true no matter where the body is located, whether in a cyclotron or out in space. We perceive this property to be the body's inertial mass. More force is required to maintain the same acceleration, (M=F/A) therefore its inertial mass is greater. Absolutely nothing is added to the body as its space energy level rises, space simply requires more force be exerted to maintain the same acceleration, therefore its inertial mass is perceived to be greater. Einstein's C2 is an arbitary number that may be more or less then this value.
The mass of a body of matter is an indication of the energy level the body is at, relative to space. A certain body of matter, for example, could have a large or small inertial "rest" mass depending on its energy level relative to space ("space energy level").
A body's "space energy level", determines its inertial mass. An astronaut traveling in a rocket at 1/2 the speed of light would have a larger inertial mass then the same astronaut traveling in a rocket traveling at 1/4 the speed of light. Space (the "inertial requirement of space") would require a greater force be exerted to accelerate the astronaut in any direction. His inertial mass would be greater even though the amount of matter in his body is exactly the same. The nucleons that make up astronaut's body simply rose to a higher energy level in space - their inertial mass increased.
We can see from this example that inertial mass of a body is not a static condition, it does vary as conditions change. No matter how fast a body travels, relative to other bodies, it does not move relative to space, only its inertial mass changes.
Scientists sometime confuse this change of inertial mass with time dilation. "By synchronizing two atomic clocks, then flying one for extended amounts of time in an airplane and comparing its time reading with the stationary clock, scientists have discovered a dilation of a few millionths of a second for the airborne clock." They thought they had witnessed time dilation. Actually what had happened was that the acceleration of the plane throughout the flight had raised the inertial mass of the clock in the airplane very slightly causing the discrepency in the synchronization of the clocks. They had in effect, witnessed an experiment using the absolute frame reference of the airborne clock's, space energy level. The acceleration of the airplane had effected its inertial mass, relative to absolute space.
Since gravity is much stronger due to the greater velocities of the stars and higher space energy level in the outlying area of spiral galaxies, there is no need for "dark matter" to hold the outlying stars in place. This is also why stars are created in the outlying area of the galaxies. The gravitational attraction force is stronger at this higher space energy level, therefore the gravity of the protostars becomes strong enough to produce the energy for fusion to take place and the proto stars to ignite into new born stars.
Located far from the center of the Milky Way, and therefore traveling very fast compared to the stars near the center, the nucleon's "rest mass" in our Solar System is much higher then the stars near the center of the galaxy. Eventually as our solar system migrates toward the center of the galaxy our Solar system's nucleon's "inertial rest mass" may also become less.
Scientists invented dark matter to account for the additional mass needed to keep the galaxies from flying apart. Rather then additional mass that cannot be seen or even shown to exist, this paper advocates a stronger inertial mass that will do the job using Newton's and Einstein's mathematical relationships. Dark matter is simply ordinary matter at a much higher energy level relative to absolute space.
Don Hamilton, author of "The Mind of Mankind" http://novan.com/mind.htm
Donald L. Hamilton, author of - "The MIND of Mankind" Published November 1996
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Part 2. New concepts in Cosmology, Physics, and Astronomy.