New Cosmology concepts! A mysterious 5th force, Accelerating Galaxies, plus many other new concepts. Astronomers have recently discovered that the very distant galaxies are actually accelerating. The galaxies are gradually accelerating outward, propelled by some mysterious force. Is this evidence of the elusive 5th Force that physicists have been looking for??|
Twentieth century cosmology is based primarily on the; Michelson/Morley experiments, the
discovery of the doppler red shift of the galaxies, the Fitzgerald-Lorentz contractions, quantum mechanics and
Einstein’s Special and General Relativity theories. Out of these observations and theories came, the expanding universe (the Big Bang), the principle of equivalence, (Black Holes), time dilation, and mass/energy equivalence concepts. It is time to take fresh look at some of these concepts and phenomena.
The results of the M/M experiment sent the scientific world into a quandry trying to find a logical
explanation for the failure to find any change in the speed of light no matter what direction the
apparatus was aimed. They could find no evidence of an aether wind or the Earth was moving through space. Finally Fitzgerald and Lorentz came up with the adhoc 'contraction' idea that even the “measuring sticks”
contract, so that no motion can be detected. Einstein took Lorentz's contraction transformation equations and used them in his theory of special relativity which says that time flucuates and that the speed of light is always constant in every frame of of reference. Mach said inertia depends on the sum total of all the matter within the universe. (not really!)
Actually, the M/M experiment was a total success. It indicated that matter does not move relative to space. There was no need for the Fitzgerald/Lorentz contractions. What really happens is that, although bodies do not move relative to absolute space itself, their mass/energy does flucuate to different “space energy levels”. This change in the “relativistic inertial mass” of a body indicates a change in the body’s “space energy level”.
“Rest Mass” only indicates a body’s mass on earth, within our portion of our galaxy. In other galaxies or even in other parts of our galaxy a body’s rest mass may be different. Time does not slow down as a rocket accelerates in space, only the astronaut’s clock changes as the as the atom's relativistic mass increases. (the atom's vibration changes with it relativistic inertial mass.)
THE FINITE UNIVERSE
The Laws of Nature are the supreme unifying and governing determinants of the universe. Universal space contains all the laws of the universe, (inertia, gravity, quantum mechanics, biogenetics, electromagnetic emission, the atomic laws, evolution, etc.). Every cubic centimeter of space from one end of the universe to the other is filled with all the natural phenomena that it takes to make the universe and everything in it work. They give the universe its personality. These natural phenomena created space and determined the size of the universe - where the laws of nature end, the universe ends.
If the laws only extended outward, in all directions, just one meter, this would be the size of the universe. It could not be any larger then this. There would be no space beyond this sphere of influence. If the laws extend outward a hundred billion light years, this would be the size of the universe. It could not extend one bit further. The Laws of Universal Space precisely determine and control all actions and interactions of matter and energy, within the Universe, from the tiniest space between the subatomic particles to the vast expanse of the universe. The laws of nature create Universal Space, without its laws, the universe would not exist.
Energy is nothing without matter to push around. Matter is massless without energy. Together, under the the Laws of Nature they create this complex dynamic Universe we live in. Even if there was no matter or energy in Universal Space, it would still exist as long as nature's laws existed, although it would be rather pointless.
I cannot bring myself to believe that all these beautiful, perfect, intricate, all pervading laws of nature just happened to come into being without some infinitely wise and all powerful reality creating them. I am talking about the natural laws of the Universe, not the religious myths and philosophies of mankind.
The "Word of God" are the "Laws of Nature" not the religious myth's of mankind. They can be proven experimentally.
The Universe is finite with regard to size and time. Where the influence of the Laws of Universal Space no longer exist, the Universe ends. Beyond the Laws of Universal Space neither matter or energy can exist, not even for the smallest fraction of measurement. This is the ultimate barrier, the boundary of the Universe.
Although the laws of space govern everything within the Universe they do not go on forever nor do they gradually weaken and dissipate. They are either completely in force or they do not exist at all. Where the laws do not exist neither energy or matter can exist, therefore there is no space. The boundary of the Universe is not a wall, it is simply where the laws of the Universe end.
The Universe is shaped like a hollow sphere with nature's laws, governing and unifying everything within the sphere. The laws of nature create Space as we know it. Outside the sphere, beyond the boundary of the Universe, nothing can exist. It is completely devoid of all energy and matter. Beyond the boundary, the Laws of Universal Space do not exist, therefore nothing can exist. Even space itself does not exist.
If we could journey beyond the boundary of the Universe in our imagination it would be extremely cold, far below absolute zero since there is absolutely no energy or matter in this region. Since the Law of Inertia does not exist, a body of matter would have no mass. If a rocket was to accelerate, the astronauts would feel no sensation of weight. They would have no way of knowing if they were moving or not moving. If they looked out the window they would see nothing.
The stars and planets could not form since there would be no mass or gravity to hold them together. A light ray could not travel in this region because there are no laws to guide them. There would be no possible way to determine if this region ended just beyond our reach or extended out to infinity.
Within the Universe there is nowhere we can go without being constantly bombarded by radiation and high energy particles or feel the effects of inertia. We are always completely under the influence of the laws of Universal Space. While our most powerful telescopes reach more then 10 billion light years into space, the actual size of the Universe is much larger, perhaps a hundred billion light years?
INERTIA, A REQUIREMENT OF SPACE (A Law of Nature).
Isaac Newton's first law of motion, the Law of Inertia states -
"A body at rest tends to remain at rest and a body in motion tends to continue
in motion in a straight line except in so far as it is acted upon by a disturbing force. "
(In motion relative to what?). Relative to other bodies? Yes! Relative to absolute space itself?
No! A body does not move relative to space itself, as the Michelson-Morley experiment
I would like to add the following idea at this time. Inertia is a requirement of Space. It is the Law of Nature that requires a force be exerted on a body for it to accelerate. This is the “Inertial Requirement of Absolute Space”. A body does not resist a change in its motion nor does Inertia simultaneously release its hold on a body as a force is exerted. Space simply requires a force be exerted on a body for it to accelerate, relative to other bodies, or rise to a higher energy level, relativistic inertia (space energy level). Since a body does not move relative to absolute space the only thing it can do, when a force is exerted on it, is to rise to a higher energy level (Its relativistic s.)
Energy must be expended on the body for it rise from one energy level to a higher energy level. Energy must be expended by the body for it to change to a lower energy level - the way it does this is, to radiate energy or change its momentum. (by friction, crashing into something, etc.)
The Inertial Requirement of a body is the amount of force required to be exerted
in order to accelerate a body at a certain rate of acceleration relative to other bodies (momentum) or rise to a body to a higher "space energy level" relative to absolute space (relativistic inertial mass).
The relativistic inertial mass varies with body's energy level relative to absolute space. "Rest" mass is the invariant energy level of a body at a certain place - such as on the surface of Earth.
We know from experience that as a body accelerates toward the speed of light, more and more force must be exerted on the body in order to maintain the same rate of acceleration. For example, as a particle accelerates toward the speed of light in a particle accelerator, it requires more and more force be exerted, in order to maintain its original acceleration. We perceive this property to be the body's mass. More force is required, therefore its relativistic mass is greater. Absolutely nothing is added to the body as its mass increases, it simply is harder to push and therefore its relativistic inertial mass increases.
The mass of a certain body of matter has nothing to do with the actual amount physical matter in the body, it is only an indication of the energy level the body is at relative to absolute space. A certain body of matter, for example, could have a large or small relativistic inertial mass depending on its "space energy level".
Space energy level, through the Law of Inertia, determines the mass of the body. An astronaut traveling in a rocket at 3/4 the speed of light would have a much larger Inertial Requirement (inertial mass) then the same astronaut traveling in a rocket traveling at 1/4 the speed of light. Space would require a greater force be exerted to accelerate the astronaut in any direction. His inertial mass would be greater even though the amount of matter in his body is exactly the same. The matter of the astronaut simply rises to a higher energy level in space.
We can see from this example that inertial mass of a body is not a static condition, it does vary as conditions change. No matter how “fast” a body travels in space it does not move relative to space, (it never passes any space, only other matter, Universal Space is all one.) More about this in the next chapter.
Electrons will drop to (radiate energy) or, if they are too low, rise to (absorb energy), a stable space energy level to correspond to their surrounding "space energy level".
When an atom's electrons orbit reaches a stable level they will maintain this level, always emitting and receiving the same amount of energy. If they move to an environment that has a different energy level they will adjust to the new environment. Universal Space through the “Law of Inertia” determines the amount of mass a body of matter will possess.
According to Newton's, Law of Gravitation, the mass of a body determines the amount
of gravitational force the body will possess. (It is its Inertial Mass, there is no such thing as
Gravitational Mass except when it is used to describe the gravitational weight of a body).
Therefore, Inertial Requirement (Newton's Law of Inertia) is responsible for creating Gravitational Force.
The Law of Inertia therefore, creates Gravity and determines the amount of Gravitational power
a body will possess. Gravity is a primary force of nature but it emanates from the Law of Inertia.
Gravity is dependent upon Inertia for its existence but is not equivalent to it.
We have just seen that a body's inertial mass and gravitational power depends on its energy level relative to absolute space. A high space energy level means a high inertial mass. Conversely, a body with a very low space energy level will have a very small Inertial Requirement (very little inertia or mass) and therefore very little gravitational attraction. It is not until the body begins to accelerate that the Inertial Requirement of Space causes its mass to increase (require more and more force be expended to accelerate) and its gravity to gain power.
This may be the reason stars form only in galaxies. Intergalactic star dust and gas may not have enough mass (be at a high enough space energy level) and therefore, it lacks the gravitational power to form a star. It is only when a galaxy passes by, sweeping up and accelerating this matter, will its mass and therefore gravitational attraction become strong enough to form a large protostar and compress it sufficiently to began a nuclear fusion reaction.
THE MICHELSON, MORLEY EXPERIMENT
Bodies in space from the smallest to the largest, move relative only to other bodies. There is absolutely no motion between a body of matter and space itself. It is as though each body is standing alone and still in space. This is the conclusion I reach from the results of the Michelson-Morley experiments.
Michelson always thought his apparatus was moving through (aether) absolute space. This was his mistake, the truth is, relative to absolute space itself, his apparatus is not moving one bit, it is completely motionless. It is only moving (vector motion) relative to other bodies.
Matter always has two forms of energy - motion/energy (vector) relative to other bodies and mass/energy (scalar) relative to absolute space, no motion what-so-ever.
A planet or any other body does not travel through space like an airplane travels through the atmosphere displacing and passing by air molecules as it travels. When it comes to space itself there is nothing to pass by.
When no other body of matter is taken into consideration, as far as space is concerned the planet is completely alone and motionless. A body does not move unless it changes its position in some way relative to another body and when there are no other bodies to consider, its impossible to move relative to space itself.
Although matter moves about the universe relative to other matter, it does not move relative to space. Space itself (excluding all energy and matter) is a single entity from one end of the universe to the other. A body cannot pass from one part of space to another, space itself is all one. Move relative to what??
Space without considering its energy or matter is far from empty however, it is absolutely packed with all the laws of nature. Every square centimeter of space within the Universe is filled with all the laws and requirements in existence - conditions may vary but the laws of nature are invariant.
If an astronaut was traveling in a rocket ship that was completely alone in space he would still feel the effects of inertia (and all the other natural laws) in his ship.
Until the time of the Michelson-Morley experiments, scientists thought that space was filled with an ether, in which, the Earth and all bodies moved. The medium, in which, the light rays traveled. The M & M experiments proved this theory wrong. There is no ether, just universal space filled with the laws and requirements that control the motion of all of the matter and energy within it.
As far as space is concerned a body of matter has no motion. *** A body does not move relative to space itself. It does however have mass/energy (an energy level relative to absolute space) and when a force is exerted on it, the body gains mass (its absolute space energy level rises)as it accelerates (motion/energy) relative to other matter.
In the M & M experiment when a body emits a photon of light,
the body or the photon has no motion - relative to space
BUT relative to each other body and the photon move away from each other at the speed of light (inertial infintiy), nothing else is taken into consideration.
This may be a tough thing to imagine but that's the way it is. The ray of light will travel away from the body at exactly the same speed no matter which direction it is emitted. Michelson's experiment was a tremendous success, unfortunately he did not comprehend its implications.
Other then the effects of inertia, there is no possible way to describe the motion of a body traveling in space without bringing another body or reference into the description. When a ray of light is emitted, it will travel away from the body at the maximum speed that space allows, the speed of light (Inertial Infinity), in any direction, no other body will be taken into consideration.
Photons always travel away from the emitting body at the same speed in every direction.
Although there is no motion between a body of matter and space itself, the body's Inertial Requirement does vary with its space energy level and therefore is an indicator of its absolute motion in space.
Our galaxy was traveling slower four and a half billion years ago when our sun was born. Since the galaxy has been accelerating all this time, its matters’ mass has increased (its space energy level has increased). Therefore the average mass of its matter has increased. Billions of years from now as it continues to accelerate, its space energy level may be high enough to begin acting as a Quasar.
A body that has a very low space energy level (at near rest in space) has little mass or gravitational power. The same body traveling at near the speed of light would have tremendous mass and gravitational power. Its space energy level would be very high.
This may be one of the reasons that quasars, which are traveling at speeds perhaps at three-quarters the speed of light, emit such enormous amounts of radiation compared to our nearby galaxies. Another reason may be that since the quasars are traveling closer to the speed of light (Inertial Infinity) they require less additional energy to radiate energy (EME). These two factors create conditions that make possible far greater nuclear fusion reactions etc. then can take place in the slower moving galaxies.
Although the mass of the speeding galaxy may be much greater then that of the slow moving galaxy the amount of actual matter in both galaxies will remain relatively constant. The amount of matter that makes up our Sun remains relatively constant (except for the particles it ejects in the solar wind).
Although tremendous amounts of its mass is continually being radiated off into space, the sun is steadily acquiring new mass/energy as our galaxy continues to accelerate towards the boundary of the Universe. The net amount of mass/energy remains relatively constant with an upward bias.
The Inertial Requirement (its mass) of a body will increase as it accelerates in space,
due to a force acting on it, no matter which direction it travels. As has been experimentally proven,
a body accelerating in space will gain mass. If it then somehow reverses its direction and begins
to accelerate in the opposite direction, due to a force acting on it, its mass will not decrease and
return to its original state.
Its mass will continue to increase as it approaches the speed of light no matter which
direction it is traveling. (A body has no direction, relative to space.) The only way it can loose mass
is to emit radiation in some way. This seems to be just what the stars are doing.
The higher a galaxy’s, space energy level is, the more radiation its stars must emit to keep from overmassing. (Reaching the speed of light.) A quasar galaxy is traveling at a tremendous rate of speed (approaching the speed of light), therefore its stars must radiate energy at an enormous rate to keep from overmassing.
Due to the constant increase of its space energy level, because of the acceleration of a galaxy in space, stars must continually emit tremendous amounts of radiation energy in order to stabilize their mass/energy level. The amount of radiation emitted is proportional to the speed of the galaxy. Just as steam prevents water from overheating, radiation prevents the matter of the stars from overmassing, (reaching Inertial Infinity).
A correlation to this phenomenon can be observed in a cyclotron when an accelerating particle spontaneously emits light waves as it approaches the speed of light. The synchrotron radiation causes the particle's mass/energy (space energy level) to automatically be lowered.
THE FALLING GALAXIES THEORY
As an alternative to the Big Bang Theory which depends on a tremendous initial explosion to get our Universe going, I would like to offer the following theory.
Instead of an initial explosion to account for the outward rush of matter and energy from a central point, with all the galaxies forming as they recede from each other. I think they are simply falling (ACCELERATING) toward the outer boundary of our FINITE UNIVERSE. Some sort of force is causing the galaxies to accelerate!
There is a Super Attractive Force, at the boundary of the universe that powers the Universe. It is the primary source of all the energy in the Universe. Although it is similar to gravity it is not gravity. One principle difference is that this Super Attractive Force exerts its force on matter itself, not the mass of the matter, as Gravity does.
This Super Force causes all galaxies to accelerate (fall) toward the boundary under the complete influence of Inertia (the Inertial Requirement of Space). As the body accelerates it acquires mass and therefore gravitational power.
It is well known that bodies falling for long distances in a gravitational field tend
to separate from each other because the bodies closer to the source of attraction are in a slightly stronger gravitational field then the trailing bodies causing them to accelerate faster.
This causes a gradual separation of the bodies over long periods of time and vast distances.
If the Super Attractive Force, is located at the boundary of the universe, all the galaxies
would be accelerating (falling) outward toward this boundary.
The boundary is similar to the inside of a giant sphere, (as discussed in a previous chapter) with all matter in the sphere falling toward their outer respective areas of the boundary. Under the influence and guidance of Inertia (and all the other laws of space) the matter eventually forms into galaxies. The galaxies continue to accelerate toward the boundary all receding from each other laterally as well as longitudinally. Other factors such as gravitational attraction between the galaxies may cause them to deviate from their primary course on their long journey.
The central area of the universe is made up largely of near massless
dark matter with very little gravitational attraction. Matter in this region is at a very low space energy level (mass/energy level).
As this matter begins to gradually accelerate (as a result of the Super Attractive Force acting on it)
in its long journey toward the far off boundary it begins to acquire mass/energy,
(its space energy level increases) and therefore its gravitational power increases.
The acceleration that the far off S.A.F. imparts on the matter, gradually,
through the Inertial Requirement, creates the matter's gravitational power.
When a long enough period of acceleration has taken place and the matter has acquired sufficient mass/energy and gravitational attraction, the matter will then be able to converge, eventually forming tremendous collections of protostars (galaxies). At first the galaxies take on a dull reddish glow as the matter of the protostars begin to heat up due to the compressive force of gravity.
As the galaxies continue to accelerate, their protostars begin to reach the critical space energy levels needed for their fusion reactions to began kicking in. They began to emit immense amounts of radiation to keep from overmassing as their acceleration continues. This is the reason our Universe is filled with galaxies of brightly shining stars as they “fall” toward its boundary.
Throughout their life, the galaxies continue to accelerate toward the boundary, sweeping up more and more, dark, low mass, intergalactic matter and because of their increasing velocity, continually acquire more and more mass/energy.
This is the source of energy for the four basic fundamental forces of nature. This Super Attractive Force causes the original acceleration of all matter. It therefore creates the mass/energy and gravitational power, etc. of all the matter in the universe.
It may be the “Fifth Force” that the scientists are currently searching for. It is the primary source of all the energy in the Universe, (EME, Gravity, etc.). The Laws of Universal Space govern this energy and matter.
The acceleration of the matter toward the boundary of the universe must be rather modest. After accelerating for billions of years, a galaxy may only be traveling a fraction of the speed of light. Most of the mass/energy gained during its acceleration is radiated back into space by the stars as EME radiation and gravitational energy, thus keeping the mass/energy level of the galaxy relatively stable. The primary energy of the Super Force is transformed by the Laws of Space, in particular, under the influence and guidance of Law of Inertia into the four Primary Forces that govern the mass/energy of matter.
As the galaxies continue to accelerate toward the far off boundary of the universe, its mass/energy continues to increase rapidly. The stars must furiously emit more and more radiation in order to keep from over massing. Eventually when the galaxies have accelerated far beyond the speed of our normal galaxies, approaching the speed of light. Conditions become so extreme that the stars of the galaxy must radiate thousands of times more radiation then stars in our vicinity of the universe just to keep from overmassing.
The relativistic curve begins to increase ever more sharply upward as the galaxy's space energy level passes one-half the speed of light. New fusion reactions kick in to produce the tremendous additional radiation emitted by these Quasar stars. These reactions create our heavier elements.
Near the boundary of the Universe the matter is traveling at tremendous speed, approaching Inertial Infinity (the speed of light), despite the immense amount of radiation the stars are emitting. The space energy level of this matter is very high, so high that matter as we know it cannot exist.
The quarks which make up the protons etc. have acquired the tremendous energy needed to exist on their own. The protons are now literally exploding into super high energy quarks. They are approaching the boundary of the Universe.
Since nothing can exist beyond the boundary of the universe, where no laws exist, everything that strikes the boundary is absorbed. The primary energy that powers the universe has returned to its home base. The matter and mass/energy that strikes the boundary is absorbed. At the same time new, massless matter is created, to replace the absorbed matter, in the central region of the universe. It is ready to begin another journey. The total amount of matter and energy within the universe remains constant.
The matter and mass/energy in this extremely energetic border region, that was emitted in a direction away from the boundary, heads back into the universe as the high energy cosmic rays and background radiation. Our universe is a very old, very dynamic, constant state entity.
In summing up the rationale of this hypothesis over the Big Bang Theory, I feel, the Falling Galaxy Theory offers certain advantages such as: - In an explosion such as the Big Bang, the matter would initially be hurled outward at such a tremendous initial speed that it would instantly become exceedingly massive and therefore generate tremendous gravitational power. The matter would instantly run into a “speed of light wall”. This would have a tremendous braking effect on the explosion, where in reality the galaxies seem to be accelerating gradually over a very long time period.
The Falling Galaxy Theory postulates that galaxies are gradually accelerating outward,
toward the boundary of the universe, - continually gaining more mass/energy,
climbing to ever higher space energy levels, generating increasingly stronger gravitational power.
This ever increasing G power causes mass/energy fusion reactions to begin,
enabling the stars to emit ever greater radiation. The tremendous radiant energy emitted
by the Quasars is an indication; that the matter of the galaxies has reached incredibly high mass/energy (space energy) levels, despite the tremendous amount radiation that its stars have been
emitting as their speed approaches Inertial Infinity.
Donald Louis Hamilton - author of "The MIND of MANKIND"
Reference: Chapters 12 to 18 - "The MIND of MANKIND"
ISBN 09649265-1-2 Published 1996, Suna Press.
Other related articles -
"The Energies of Matter"
Weight, Inertia and Gravity.
"The Birth of the Earth"
"Earth's slowing Rotation"