"Star Formation"

Spiral Galaxy 4414
Notice the new stars forming in the outer spirals

Why stars form in Spiral Galaxies.

© Donald L. Hamilton, 1996 - 2011

"Dark matter" is simply ordinary matter at a higher mass/energy level relative to absolute space.

The outlying portions of spiral galaxies gravity is much stronger due to high rotational velocity and therefore higher energy level, relative to absolute space. This is why stars are created in these outlying regions of the rotating spiral galaxies and not in the static elliptical galaxies. The stronger relativistic inertial mass due to the higher "space energy level" relative to absolute space of the matter causes gravity to become strong enough for fusion reactions to take place and the proto-stars to ignite into new born stars.

A body does not travel through space. Relative to absolute space itself a body is completely motionless. Although Michelson's many experiments in his quest to find our planet's motion through the hypothetical aether in space failed, his experiments were successful in that he discovered one of the most fundamental characteristics of nature. He failed to realize this however and thought his quest to prove the existence of aether was a failure. Actually he proved that universal space is one single entity - a body does not move relative to absolute space, only to other bodies - probably the greatest discovery of the 19th century - and yet still unrecognized by today's science.

One of the most fundamental laws of nature is the law of Inertia - A force must be exerted on a body for it to accelerate relative to other bodies - relative to space the body does not accelerate BUT the body's inertial mass does increase (its "space energy level" increases. This is why star formation only takes place in the outlying portion of spiral galaxies. This is where the galaxy's "space energy level" is much higher - it's inertial mass is greater.

Since its inertial mass is greater in this outlying area it's gravitatational power will also (according to Newton) be greater. This greater G power gives matter the strength to compress its matter sufficiently to began a fusion reaction deep within the proto star. There is no need for dark matter to hold the galaxy together nor is there a need for the fictional Higg's particle to create matter's mass.

Relative Motion:  All motion must be relative to something else. To perceive motion of a body it must be compared with another frame of reference or body. When its motion is being compared to absolute space its motion is always zero. That is why Michelson could find no evidence of motion of the Earth through absolute space.

Although an accelerating body's motion is changing relative to other bodies, it is motionless relative to absolute space. It is impossible to move from one part of space to another part, it is all one. BUT the body's energy level relative to space itself ("space energy level") does increase as a force is exerted on it. This is perceived as an increase in the inertial mass of the body. In a particle accelerator a proton becomes more massive as it accelerates. Its energy level relative to space itself (space energy level) increases.

When a force is exerted on an accelerating body it always has two changes in its energy level, one relative to other bodies or reference frames (momentum) and one relative to absolute space (inertial mass), the absolute reference frame.

It was discovered by Dr. Vera C. Rubin that a galaxy rotates like a wheel with the outer portion traveling much faster then the center part of the wheel. The velocity of the stars, in the outlying portions of a spiral galaxy are much faster then the stars near the center. Therefore the outer area's star's inertial mass, (space energy level) and gravitational power (G constant) will also be much greater. This is why stars are created in these outlying regions of the rotating spiral galaxies. The gravity of matter is strong enough, due to its higher "space energy level", for fusion reactions to take place and the proto-stars to form and ignite into new born stars.

Elliptical galaxies do not have the high velocity in their out lying area so there is no increase in inertial mass therefore they have no power to sweep up intergalactic matter and increase its mass and gravity and make stars. This is also the reason there is no need for  the mysterious dark matter  to hold the galaxies together. Gravity is strong enough due to the higher space energy level to do the job itself.

Since an accelerating body does not move relative to absolute space the only thing it can do, when a force is exerted on it, is to   RISE TO A HIGHER "SPACE ENERGY LEVEL" such as observed in a cyclotron.    Since Newton's gravity depends on inertial mass, as a body's inertial mass increases (space energy level rises), its gravitational attraction will also increase. This means that gravitational attraction between bodies can vary depending on the space energy level they are at. Gravity becomes stronger as its inertial mass increases. The gravitational constant (G) is not so constant after all!

In a particle accelerator - as a particle accelerates some of the energy becomes inertial mass. The more force that is exerted on the particle, the more massive it becomes. At low velocities, this mass increase is modest. A particle moving at one-fifth the speed of light, for example, gains only two percent over its original "rest" mass. But at velocities that are easily attained in large accelerators, the mass increase becomes very large. Therefore, since inertial mass of the particles is the governing factor in Newton's Law of Gravitation, as the inertial mass increases, the gravitational power of the particles also increase.

In Newton's equation for inertial mass (F=MA), (M) is the body's inertial mass, the body's energy level, relative to absolute space.    The body (M) would require X amount of (F)force to (A)accelerate the body at a certain rate. An extremely small amount of this force would be converted to the body's inertial mass, (E=MC2)  relative to absolute space. This newly acquired inertial mass would also create a slightly stronger gravitational attraction, according to Newton's law of gravity.

Eintein's formula:  E = MC2  (E) represents the energy level of a body relative to space (space energy level). (M) represents the inertial mass of the body. (C) represents inertial infinity (the speed of light).

We know from experience that as a body accelerates toward the speed of light, more and more force must be exerted on the body in order to maintain the same rate of acceleration. It becomes more massive. For example, as a particle accelerates toward the speed of light in a cyclotron, it requires more and more force be exerted, in order to maintain its same rate of acceleration. We perceive this property to be the body's inertial mass. More force is required, therefore its inertial mass becomes greater. Absolutely nothing is added to the body as its space energy level rises. It is space itself that requires more force be exerted to maintain the same acceleration, therefore its inertial mass is perceived to be greater.

The relativistic inertial mass of a body of matter is an indication of the energy level the body is at relative to absolute space. A certain body of matter, for example, could have a high or low relativistic inertial mass depending on its energy level relative to absolute space ("space energy level"). The strength of gravity depends upon the relativistic inertial mass of the bodies involved.

"Rest mass" is simply the relativistic mass of a body at a certain location, such as the surface of the earth. It strickly depends on the mass/energy level of the matter relative to absolute space at a certain location. In another location (such as an orbitting GPS satellite) the "rest mass" will be different because the atom's oscillations are different. The atomic clock's timing is affected (NOT TIME ITSELF!).

A body's "Space Energy Level", determines the mass of the body. An astronaut traveling in a rocket at 1/2 the speed of light would have a much larger inertial mass then the same astronaut traveling in a rocket traveling at 1/4 the speed of light. The "inertial requirement of space" would require a greater force be exerted to accelerate the astronaut in any direction. His inertial mass would be greater even though the amount of matter in his body is exactly the same. The astronaut's body simply rose to a higher energy level in space.

We can see from this example that inertial mass of a body is not a static condition, it does vary as conditions change. No matter how fast a body travels relative to other bodies, IT DOES NOT MOVE RELATIVE TO ABSOLUTE SPACE, only its relativistic inertial mass changes.

Scientists sometime confuse this change of inertial mass with time dilation. "By synchronizing two atomic clocks, then flying one for extended amounts of time in an airplane and comparing its time reading with the stationary clock, scientists have discovered a dilation of a few millionths of a second for the airborne clock."

They thought they had witnessed time dilation. Actually what had happened was that the acceleration of the plane throughout the flight had raised the inertial mass of the clock in the airplane very slightly causing the discrepency in the synchronization of the clocks. They had in effect, witnessed an experiment using the absolute frame reference of the airborne clock's, space energy level. The acceleration of the airplane had effected its inertial mass, relative to absolute space.

Stronger gravity creates new stars: This is why stars are created in the outlying portions of rotating spiral galaxies where the velocity is greater and the "space energy level" is higher (inertial mass is greater) and therefore the gravitational attraction is greater. The gravity of the protostars becomes strong enough to produce the heat for fusion to take place and the proto stars to ignite into new born stars.

Since the gravity is actually stronger in the outlying area of these galaxies, due to the higher space energy level there is no need for "dark matter" to hold them together.

According to Newton's, Law of Gravitation, the inertial mass (M) of a body determines the amount of gravitational force the body will possess.

Gravity= (G)(constant)X (M1)X (M2) divided by (D2) (distance squared).

Therefore, Inertial Requirement (Newton's Law of Inertia) F=(M)A is responsible for creating Gravitational Force.

The Law of Inertia is the most fundamental law of nature. It is the law of nature that controls matter and energy within the universe. It determines a body's inertial mass and the amount of gravitational attraction the body will possess.

We have just seen that a body's inertial mass and gravitational power increase as it rises to a higher "space energy level". Conversely, a body with a very low space energy level will have a very small Inertial Requirement (very little inertial mass) and therefore very little gravitational attraction. It is not until the body begins to accelerate that inertia causes its inertial mass to increase (require more and more force be expended to accelerate) and therefore its gravity to become stronger.

This is the reason stars form in spiral galaxies. Intergalactic star dust does not have enough relativistic mass (be at a high enough space energy level) and therefore, it lacks the gravitational power to form a star. It is only when a spiral galaxy passes by, sweeping up and accelerating this intergalactic matter, will its inertial mass and therefore gravitational attraction become strong enough to form a proto-star and compress it sufficiently to began a nuclear fusion reaction.

Donald L. Hamilton, author of - "The MIND of Mankind"   Published November 1996

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Reference - Chapters 14 to 19.

14. The Finite Universe - 157
It is the "Laws of Nature", the phenomena (inertia, gravity, electro magnetic emission) etc. that creates space and determines the size and personality of the Universe. Where the laws end - the universe ends (whether it is expanding or not).

15. Inertia, A Requirement of Space. - 161
The Law of Inertia creates (inertial) mass and therefore gravity also, since inertial mass determines the strength of gravitational power a body will possess.

16. The Michelson-Morley Experiment - 165
Space is a single entity from one end of the universe to the other. Matter can move about the Universe relative to other matter but cannot move relative to space itself.

17. The Falling Galaxies - 171
The Super Attractive Force is the primary source of all energy in the Universe. Located at the boundary of the Universe all Galaxies are falling toward it, powered by the 5th force. The cosmologists currently account for the accelerating galaxies by creating "dark energy".

18. Weight, Its Relation with Inertia and Gravity - 177
This chapter explores the nature and intricate relationship of Inertia, Gravity, Inertial Mass and Weight


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Part 1. The Power of Human Imagination - Its Origins and Accomplishments.
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"Seeking Reality with Imagination."