Solar Corona extends a million kilometers from the Sun's surface.
However Eugene Parker's discovery of the solar wind opened the door to a new field of astrophysics. Up until Parker's discovery cosmologists insisted that there was a vacuum between the sun and planets. Now we know different. The solar wind is now accepted as a fundamental physical fact, like the atomic nature of matter. Astrophysicists had refused to accept Parker's discovery until they finally recognized it in the 1950's. This opened the door to the possibility that the deflection of light by the sun was not gravitational but was an optical refraction caused by the sun's corona.
In forming his General Theory of Relativity, Albert Einstein used his famous thought experiments to try to prove that gravity can effect light rays. He claimed that inertial acceleration creates the same effect on a beam of light as gravity and are therefore equivalent. “The Principle of Equivalence”. Although their effects are similar (but not exactly the same) they are not equivalent.
Einstein's "Principle of Eqivalence" compares gravitational acceleration in a (1)freefalling elevator in which a person is WEIGHTLESS - with the acceleration of the person in a (2) fast rising elevator in which the person now feels the sensation of WEIGHT. This is compared to when the (3) the person is inside the elevator sitting on ground in which the person again feels the sensation of WEIGHT. Einstein claimed that since the person in case 2 & 3 are the same that they are equivalent which is wrong - because in both case it is the secondary forces that are creating the sensation of weight NOT one of the primary forces such as gravity, etc..
In case (2) and (3) the person feels the sensation of WEIGHT because there is an ordinary secondary force acting on him. In case (1) the primary force of gravity is acting alone on the person who is WEIGHTLESS because there is NO secondary force present. (gravity alone cannot create WEIGHT). In case (2) it is the floor of the fast rising elevator that is the secondary force causing him to feel the sensation of WEIGHT. In case (3) it is the secondary obstructional force of the earth's surface that creates the sensation of WEIGHT to be felt by the person inside the elevator. In both cases (2) and (3) the sensation of WEIGHT is real. Whether the original acceleration is caused by the primary force of gravity, electric motors of the elevator, or of chemical force of an accelerating rocket - IT IS ALWAYS THE SECONDARY FORCES THAT CAUSE THE SENSATION OF "WEIGHT" TO BE CREATED.
Since in both cases it is an ordinary secondary force causing the sensation of WEIGHT in the elevator (or rocket). Gravity is can never cause the sensation of weight by itself - a secondary force must also always be present. Law of Inertia: is a requirement of nature that a force must be exerted on a body for it to accelerate. Gravity is just one of the primary energy/forces of nature that fulfills this requirement. The four primary forces of nature are the energy/forces of nature. There must always be at least one of these forces present to supply the original acceleration of a body. If a secondary force alters the acceleration of the body - this is when the sensation of weight occurs.
One of the ideas that misled Einstein to his conclusion was that a body dropped in an accelerating elevator or in an accelerating rocket out in space behaved in exactly the same manner as it would if was dropped inside the elevator sitting on the surface of Earth. If someone was inside the elevator or rocket there would be no way of knowing whether the elevator was “resting” on the ground or in accelerating rocket out in space. Both examples would feel the sensation of weight because both examples are being acted upon by a secondary force which causes the sensation of weight.
Actually the room was not actually “resting” on the ground - it is actually "pushing" against the ground, (I call it a constant state of "restrained acceleration" as is everything else that is “pushing” against the surface of the earth. The obstructional force of the earth’s surface is constantly obstructing ("changing the body's acceleration from 32.2 ft/sec/sec to zero"). All bodies “resting” on the surface of earth are being restrained by the earth's surface. If this obstructional secondary force is removed the body will immediately resume falling (accelerating).
For example: Imagine a boat, with its motor off, its bow resting against a dock. This boat is not moving, it is at rest. Now imagine the same boat, this time with its motor running pushing against the dock. The boat again is not moving but now it is also not at rest. The dock is exerting an obstructional force preventing the boat from moving. This second case is analogous to a body's gravitational force "pushing" against the obstructional force of the ground. The body is not resting - it is constantly "pushing" against the gound. Therefore Einstein was wrong to state that the room was "resting" on the ground. It is actually in a state of restrained acceleration, pushing against the ground.
In both cases, the elevator is in a state of "acceleration" one caused by gravity "pushing" against the ground the other caused by the primary electromotive force of the electric motors propelling the elevator upward.
Actually, the effects in both cases, are similar but not exactly the same. The truth is, Gravity causes bodies, dropped from various heights in the room “resting” on the ground, to fall at different rates of acceleration (due to their different distances in the room, to the center of gravity of the Earth) where as, all bodies in the accelerating elevator would seem to “fall” at exactly the same rate. This is true whether it takes place in a small room or dropped from an airplane at different altitudes in the sky.
Motion Relative to Absolute Space.
Michelson’s experiments failed to detect any motion of the Earth relative to absolute space. What it all boils down to is that - out in space in a rocket (or in Einstein’s elevator room) the rocket is only accelerating relative to other bodies - the body does not accelerate relative to space itself. Acceleration is only an effect that can be noticed between the motion of bodies not between a body and space itself. No motion can be detected between a body and space itself. There must always be at least one other body available to detect motion.
Space is all one - a body cannot move relative to space itself. Therefore the light beam would go directly to the other side of the room with no apparent deflection. There is no physical evidence to indicate that a beam of light would be effected by either inertial acceleration or gravitational acceleration whatsoever!
So why then do atomic clocks seem to slow down when they are accelerated to higher velocities? The answer is - because there is a slight change in the clock’s inertial mass/energy level similar to when a particle is accelerated to a higher mass/energy level in a cyclotron.
Why does the light from a star seem to be effected by a strong gravitational force as it passes by the sun? The answer is that it is the sun’s corona (see the picture above), which extends over a million of kilometers out from the sun, causes the star’s light to be optically displaced from its original position in the sky.
So there you have it - Black Holes are just a myth after all - Gravity can only influence the "inertial mass" of bodies and since photons have no mass whatsoever, it has absolutely no effect on light rays passing through strong gravitational fields.
Donald L. Hamilton,
Reference: “The Mind of Mankind” Part 2.
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